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Wednesday, 18 September 2013

Bladder, Kidney Stones in Dogs, Cats - Types, Symptoms, Diet, Treatment



In this article…
  1. Threat Rating to the Health of Your Dog or Cat
  2. Common Signs, Symptoms of Bladder and Kidney Stones
  3. Bladder Crystals and Stones vs. Kidney Crystals and Stones
  4. Understanding Crystals and Stones by Type; Cause and Treatment – a Synopsis
  5. Understanding PH Levels
  6. Inflammatory Diets - Crystal and Stone Forming and Aggravating
  7. Prescription Dog and Cat Food for Bladder and Kidney Stones – Health Supporting or Health Threatening?
  8. What a Bladder or Kidney Crystal or Stone Diet Should Be Comprised Of and Example Recipes
  9. Preventing Renal Issues Including the Formation of Bladder and Kidney Stones
Bladder and Kidney stones are a serious threat to a dog’s and cat’s health and if not treated and resolved can be life threatening...
1.0 Threat Rating to the Health of Your Dog Cat

1.1 When is This Not an Immediate Emergency 

If your dog or cat has either crystals or stones that are not completely blocking the uretha preventing or completely stopping the flow of urine (your dog or cat is still able to urinate) then the condition can normally be treated and remedied with the use of medicines and/or diet. You need to make an appointment to see your veterinarian.

1.2 Make an Appointment As Soon As Possible
 

A dog or cat that strains to urinate (no flow) and then passes a heavy flow of urine may have just passed a stone. You should have you dog or cat examined by a veterinarian as soon as possible. If you can find the stone keep it and bring it to the veterinarian for analysis.

1.3 This IS an Immediate Emergency – No Time to Wait!

 

If your dog or cat is not able to urinate at all – blockage is complete, this indicates that the urethra is completely plugged. This is a life threatening emergency! You need to get your dog or cat to a veterinary clinic/hospital right away.
  • Complete obstruction of the urethra can:
  • Cause the urine to back-up into the urinary tract and cause kidney failure;
  • Back-up can also cause the bladder to:
  • Stretch to the point of rupturing;
  • Or damage the bladder’s muscle tone thus creating incontinence.

2.0 Signs, Symptoms of Bladder, Kidney Stones

2.1 Bladder Stones

2.1.1 Visible Symptoms
Some dogs and cats will not exhibit any outward signs, others may exhibit one or more of the following:

  • Blood in the urine also called hematuria (caused by crystals inflaming the lining of the bladder);
  • Cloudy or foul smelling urine;
  • Frequent urination;
  • Increased thirst;
  • Excessive licking of the genital area;
  • Fever;
  • Lethargy;
  • Pain when urinating – may cause your dog to cry, yelp;
  • Pain in the lower back or bladder area;
  • Passing only a few drops of urine at a time;
  • Puss in the urine;
  • Restlessness;
  • Straining to urinate, but often not passing any urine;
  • Urinating in places that are not his/her normal place to urinate – noticeable in house-trained dogs;
  • Urine may be tinged red or burgundy in colour;
  • Urine smells like rotting eggs (sulphur) – may indicate a cystine stone;
  • Walking with loins in crouched position.
  • As bacteria often resides with the stones, urinary tract infections can also ensue.
  • If a stone plugs the ureters – agitation, severe pain and straining – this is an emergency, you need to get to a veterinary clinic right away;
  • If blockage occurs depression, vomiting and uremia (kidney also known as renal failure result).

2.2 Kidney Stones
  • Kidney stones are less common than bladder stones;
  • May cause sudden onset of colic (whimpering, crying);
  • Intermittent blood in the urine;
  • If a stone plugs the ureters – agitation, severe pain and straining – this is an emergency, you need to get to a veterinary clinic right away.
  • If blockage occurs depression, vomiting and uremia (kidney also known as renal failure result).

2.3 Symptoms That Require Testing to be ‘Seen’
  • Hypercalcemia – excessive calcium in the blood;
  • Hypercalciuria – excessive calcium in the urine;
  • Hyperozaluria – excessive oxalate in the urine.

3.0 Bladder Crystals, Stones vs.Kidney Crystals,Stones

Bladder crystals and eventually stones usually form when a dog’s or cat’s bladder is not able to empty properly. An inflammatory diet promotes the formation of bladder stones as inflammation can lead to issues with the proper emptying of the bladder. Bladder stones are also known as:

  • Urinary tract stone disease;
  • Urinary calculus disease (calculis – stone, is the plural of calculi – stones);
  • Ureteral stones,
  • Ureteral calculi;
  • Urinary calculi;
  • Urinary stones;
  • Urolithiasis, and;
  • Struvite.
The type of stone your companion animal has can only be 100% determined upon surgically removing the stone. However your veterinarian may make an educated guess based on:
  • Abnormalities revealed by blood test;
  • Age;
  • Breed;
  • Crystal type as seen in urine,
  • Presence of infection;
  • Sex;
  • Urinary pH levels (normal healthy range is: 6 to 6.5, 7 at most);
  • And if available, x-ray which may show stones as a white circle. Some stones cannot be seen unless dye is injected into the bladder.
Different stones require different treatments which is why it is important that your veterinarian identify which type of stone your dog or cat has.
Kidney crystals and eventually kidney stones (also called nephroliths) tend to form for other reasons such as ingestion of dry dog food and insufficient moisture leading to a lack of fluids to wash away mineral deposits in the kidney. Over time as additional crystals form they may bond together and form a stone. The presence of stones also increases the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Occasionally a kidney stone will pass and become lodged in the ureters (tubes that lead to the bladder).

Kidney stones can become very damaging when the stone blocks or limits the flow of urine from the kidney.

The following provides a list of stones types (also known as uroliths), the most common of which are Calcium Oxalate and Struvite…

  • Calcium Phosphate – also known as apatite uroliths;
  • Calcium Oxalate - also known as CaOx;
  • Cystine – a sulferous stone casued by cystinuria;
  • Silica;
  • Struvite - magnesium ammonium phosphate;
  • Mixed and Compound uroliths – a stone consisting of two or more minerals;
  • Uric Acid - ammonium acid urate – purine stones.
4.0 Understanding Crystals, Stones by Type, Cause and
      Treatment – a Synopsis



4.1 Calcium Phosphate Stones (apatite uroliths)

4.1.1 Cause
 

Calcium phosphate stones are much less common than Calcium Oxalate (CaOx) stones. This type of stone may develop when urine is over-alakalized (pH is greater than 7.0) - these stones thrive in basic pH conditions.

Treatment for calcium phosphate stones is very similar to treatment required for CaOx stones with two exceptions, treatment:

  • To lower CaOx in the urine is not required for calcium phosphate stones;
  • Acidification of the urine is required for calcium phosphate stones;
  • Other typical causes...
  • Treatment for CaOx, Cystine or Urate stones require the alkalization of the urine – which can trigger the formation of calcium phosphate stones;Cortisone type medication, i.e. Prednisone;
  • Is on diuretic medication furosemide (dogs with congestive heart failure);
  • Is on anti-inflammatory drugs prescribed for conditions such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, skin inflammation and itch due to allergies, etc.
  • Excessive calcium and phosphorus in the diet;Has Cushing’s Disease;
  • Has hypercalcemia (excess calcium in the blood);
  • Has hyperparathyroidism;
  • Renal tubular acidosis (RTA).

4.1.2 Treatment

This type of stone:

  • Can be easily detected with an X-ray;
  • Cannot be dissolved with the use of medicines, therefore surgery may be required, however;
  • If the stone is not active, also called ‘clinically inactive’ (not growing or causing problems) it may be left alone;
  • If the root cause of stone formation is a disease condition such as Cushing’s disease, Hypercalcemia or hyperparathyroidism, action should be taken to treat the root cause;
  • Acidification of the urine;
  • Dietary changes – the diet needs to support the acidification of the urine – the dog or cat should not be on a protein restricted diet;
  • See section 9.0 below for detailed dietary recommendations and a homemade food recipe.

4.2 Calcium Oxalate (CaOx) Stones

 

4.2.1 Cause
  • Calcium oxalate crystals and stones occur in the upper urinary tract (the kidneys) and the lower urinary tract (the bladder).
  • CaOx stones are one of the most common types of stones that occur in domestic dogs and cats;
  • Most CaOx stones are found in the kidneys;
  • Small breed male dogs are most affected by this type of stone;
  • This type of stone is usually identifiable by use of an x-ray.
  • Typical causes include...
    • Processed dry food diet;
    • Lacks daily exercise;
    • Is neutered;
    • Is overweight;
    • Is on anti-inflammatory medication such as;
    • Cortisone type medication, i.e. Prednisone;
    • Is on diuretic medication furosemide (dogs with congestive heart failure);
    • Has Cushing’s Disease;
    • Has hypercalcemia (excess calcium in the blood);
    • Has abnormal levels of nephrocalcin (acidic glycoprotein normally present in urine – glycoprotein inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation);
    • Is on anti-inflammatory drugs prescribed for conditions such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, skin inflammation and itch due to allergies, etc.

4.2.2 (Dog) Breeds Most Prone to CaOx Stones:

  • Bichon Frises;
  • Cairn Terriers;
  • Chihuahuas;
  • Dachshunds;
  • Keeshonds;
  • Lhasa Apsos;
  • Miniature and Toy Poodles;
  • Miniature and Standard Schnauzers;
  • Maltese;
  • Mixed breeds;
  • Parson Russell Terriers;
  • Papillions;
  • Pomeranians;
  • Samoyeds;
  • Shih Tzus;
  • West Highland Terriers;
  •  Yorkshire Terriers.

4.2.3 Treatment

  • Stones that are not growing or causing problems(termed 'clinically inactive') may not require surgery;
  • For males with reoccurring stones an urethrostomy (rerouting of the urines path) may be done;
  • If the root cause of stone formation is a disease condition such as Cushing’s disease or Hypercalcemia, action should be taken to treat the root cause;
  • If a dog has CaOx crystals in fresh urine but no stones than monitoring should be undertaken.

4.2.4 Diet

Diet plays an important part in managing crystal and stone formation:

  • The diet needs to be alkalized;  
  • The diet should be rich in low-oxalate foods;
  • The diet should not be protein restrictive.
  • See section 9.0 below for detailed dietary recommendations and a homemade food recipe.

4.3 Silica Stones

4.3.1 Cause
 

Silica stones form when there is too much silica in the diet. 95% of silica stones occur in males. Silica stones can form in dogs as young as 4 months of age, with the most common formation time being 6 to 9 years of age. Urinary pH does not seem to have a causal effect on silica stone formation. Silica stones are linked to dogs with pica – an eating disorder that causes dogs to eat dirt, rocks and other non-food related items. The formation of silica stones is directly linked to consumption of diets that are high in:
  • Cereal Grains;
  • Corn and corn derivatives;
  • Soy Bean Hulls (soy bean mill run) and other soy derivatives;
  • Oat, rice and wheat hulls;
  • Millet;
  • Alfalfa;
  • Sugar cane;
  • Root vegetables - including potatoes and sweet potatoes, sugar beets, turnips, parsnips, carrots;
  • Vegetables – asparagus, bell peppers, cabbage, cucumbers, dark leaf greens (lettuce, spinach, dandelion, kale, etc.), green beans (yellow beans, red-runner beans, etc.);
  • Fruit – apples, cherries, oranges and other citrus;
  • Legumes – lentils, soy beans;
  • Seeds – flax seeds;
  • Herbs and spices – Aloe, chickweed, comfrey, garlic, horsetail, nettle, salt.
  • Don’t use diatomaceous earth (DE) or bentonite clay as an ingested treatment on a dog or cat that has Silica stones.

4.3.2 (Dog) Breeds Most Prone to Silica Stones

  • German Shepherds;
  • Golden Retrievers;
  • Labrador Retrievers;
  • Old English Sheepdogs.

4.3.3 Treatment

  • Drugs or diet will not dissolve silica stones therefore silica stones must be removed by surgery, flushed out or shattered;
  • Clinically inactive stones (stones that are not growing, not causing inflammation, not causing obstruction) may not require treatment;
  • Silica stones are radiopaque – they can be seen on x-rays;
  • Silica stones do not reoccur if the diet is changed.

4.3.4 Diet

The best diet for this condition is;

  •  A bones and raw food diet (BARF) diet - high in protein and fat, low in plant foods;
  • Ensure that fluid consumption is high.

4.4 Struvite Stones


4.4.1 Cause
A struvite stone is a compound or mixed stone with a mineral core surrounded by another mineral – ammonium phosphate, magnesium or phosphate. Struvite stones are also called triple phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate stones. When these three minerals are present in high concentrations they can bind together into crystal formations that may irritate and cause inflammation of the bladder wall...

  • The crystals may also bind with mucus and form a plug that can block the urinary tract, or;
  • The crystals may fuse with each other creating a stone.
  • Struvite stones are porous – as such they provide a perfect host environment for bacteria;
  • Struvite are one of the most common stones found in domestic dogs representing about 33% of all urinary tract stones, and about 50% of all urinary stones found in domestic cats.

4.4.2 (Dog) Breeds Most Prone to Struvite Stones

  • Bichon Frises;
  • Cocker Spaniels;
  • Lhasa Apsos;
  • Miniature Poodles;
  • Miniature Schnauzers;
  • Mixed breeds;
  • Shih Tzus.

4.4.3 Struvite Stones (Acquired condition)

4.4.3.1 Cause

  • A species inappropriate diet – processed dry dog and cat food;
  • Repeated usage of steroids;
  • Retention of urine in the bladder beyond what is normal;
  • The presence of urease which creates a high-pH and enables struvite stone formation;
  • Other urinary tract problems.
  • There are two types of struvite crystals and stones:
    • Struvite, and;
    • Sterile struvite stones.
  • Struvite stones form when:
    • A urinary tract infection (UTI) from bacteria that produces urease must be present or the stone will not form, and;
    • When large amounts of ammonium phosphate, magnesium or phosphate crystals bond together in the presence of a UTI.
  • Struvite crystals are very common in dogs and cats and only pose a problem when a UTI is also present.

4.4.4 Sterile Struvite Stones (Genetic pre-disposition)

4.4.4.1 Cause

There is a genetic pre-disposition to the production of a natural protein called cauxin which the body produces and excretes in to the urine. Cauxin in the urine can form crystals that do not require a bacterial infection to form – this is why they are called ‘sterile’.

4.4.5 Treatment

X-rays and ultrasounds are used to determine location, shape, size of struvite stones and to determine treatment options.

4.4.6 Diet

  • Diet plays an important part in managing crystal and stone formation;
  • The diet needs to support the acidification of the urine;
  • See section 9.0 below for detailed dietary recommendations and a homemade food recipe.

4.5 Mixed and Compound Stones (uroliths)

4.5.1 Cause
Compound stones develop when another type of stone (i.e. struvite stone) is being treated which results in a change of urinary pH which may then for a CaOx shell around the struvite stone.

  • Mixed uroliths are comprised of two or more minerals in approximately equal proportions.
  • This type of stone is rare, representing about 2% of uroliths.
  • Compound uroliths are comprised of a core mineral surrounded by a smaller amount of a different mineral;
  • This type of stone represents about 12% of uroliths.
  • Compound stones develop when another type of stone (i.e. struvite stone) is being treated which results in a change of urinary pH which may then for a CaOx shell around the struvite stone;
  • The majority of compound uroliths are found in female dogs simply because female anatomy creates a greater pre-disposition for urinary tract infections.

4.5.2 Treatment

  • A common approach is to try to dissolve the outer layer of the stone first – this approach is usually employed for stones with an infection-induced struvite shell;
  • X-rays are used to monitor progress during the dissolving phase of treatment;
  • Once the outer shell is dissolved, treatment then focuses on flushing out the stone;
  • Adding salt to the diet is not recommended as it can increase urinary calcium leading to CaOx stone formation.

 4.5.3 Diet

  • The type of diet adopted to treat these stones must be targeted appropriately to address the mineral composition of the stone’s inner core;
  • Once your veterinarian has specified the type of stone you can follow the dietary advice (for the type of mineral composition of the stone's inner core) provided under the stone types in this article.
  • As with all stones – encourage an increase in the consumption of fluids.

4.6 Uric Acid Stones (Purine Stones)
 

4.6.1 Cause

This type of stone forms when the urine is persistently acidic.  A diet that is rich in purines may increase uric acid in the urine. If uric acid becomes too concentrated it may settle and form a stone or may combine with calcium to form a stone. Cannot be identified using x-rays so ultrasounds are often used to diagnose.


4.6.2 (Dog) Breeds Most Prone to Uric Acid Stones (purine stones)

  • Due to genetic metabolic condition abnormality:
    • Dalmations;
    • English Bulldogs;
    • Large Munsterlanders;
    • Russian Black Terriers.
  • Due to protosystemic shunts (abnormal blood vessels that bypass the liver):
    • Miniature Schnauzers;
    •  Yorkshire Terriers.

4.6.3 Treatment

  • Reduce the purines in your dog and cats diet…
    • Switching your dog or cat to a low-protein diet is not the proper approach and will result in nutritional deficiency in protein, fat, essential vitamins and minerals which will cause additional problems for your dog’s and cat’s overall health over the long-term and will NOT reduce the incidence of stone formation.
  • Diet
    • The goal is to:
    • Lower the intake of purine rich foods;
    • Do not reduce the protein, but instead use proteins that are low in purine;
    • Feed foods with a high moisture content, and;
    • Increase fluid intake;
  • See section 9.0 below for detailed dietary recommendations and a homemade food recipe.

4.7 Cystine Stones (Metabolic Inherited Genetic
      Disorder)


4.7.1 Cause

  • Cystinuria an inherited metabolic genetic disorder that impairs the ability of the kidneys to reabsorb cystine
  • Cysteine is an essential amino acid – meaning that the body produces it, unlike amino acids which the body does not produce and must be ingested via food;
  • Cysteine protects from radiation, supports bone, connective tissue, hair, skin, brain and liver health;
  • Cysteine, homocysteine, methionine and taurine are four sulphur containing amino acids – only cysteine and methionine are found in protein;
  • Once in the body, cysteine eventually oxidizes into cystine;
  • Methionine also breaks down into cysteine;
  • When cystine cannot be fully absorbed by the kidneys an excess can end up in the urine;
  • When the excess cystine is able to be flushed out with the urine no negative impact ensures;
  • If the cystine is not passed in the urine the concentration of cystine reaches a saturation level and then forms crystals that combine to form a cystine stone;
  • The cystine stone may then block the kidney, bladder or urethra;
  • Cystine stones form in acidic – low pH conditions;
  • Cystine becomes significantly more soluble (dissolves) when it is present in liquid with an increased pH level.
  • Cystine stones occur mostly in male dogs.

4.7.2 (Dog) Breeds Most Prone to Cystine Stones

  • Bulldog;
  • Bassett Hound;
  • Bull Mastiff;
  • Daschund;
  • Deer Hound;
  • English Bull Dog;
  • Irish Terrier;
  • Mastiff;
  • Newfoundland;
  • Staffordshire Bull Terrier;
  • Rottweiler;
  • Welsh Corgi;
  • Whippet.

4.7.3 Treatment

  • The urine must be alkaline rather than acidic:
  • Prescription drugs to help dissolve and prevent stone formation;
  • Provision of frequent opportunities to urinate;
  • Sometimes, surgery (urethrostomy) to redirect the path of urine.

4.7.4 Diet
  • The goal is to lower the concentration of cystine in the urine. To achieve this via diet requires several interventions;
  • Decrease the amount of cysteine and methionine being ingested;
  • This is done by reducing the amount of foods being consumed that are high in cysteine and methionine the usual source of which is protein. So protein sources containing cysteine and methionine must be lowered;
  • Lower the intake of sodium (table salt) – sodium draws cysteine into the urinary system;
  • Increase the intake of fluids;
  • See section 9.0 below for detailed dietary recommendations and a homemade food recipe.

5.0 Understanding PH Levels


5.1 Neutral pH
A pH of 7.0 is neutral which means that it is neither acidic (acid) nor alkaline (base).

5.2 Normal Healthy pH Level

  • A healthy dog or cat will have a neutral to slightly acid urinary and blood pH level;
  • Ranges in between 5.5 to 7.0 are considered normal;
  • Dogs and cats that are fed a good raw or homemade diet typically have a pH between 6 and 6.5 – close to neutral;
  • Dogs and cats that are fed (exclusively) a dry processed food diet typically have a pH level that is in the lower range of ‘normal’ so their pH is more acidic;
  • Disease loves an acidic environment, dogs and cats with acidified pH levels below normal are more likely hosts for disease and parasite infestations.

5.3 Acidic v.s. Base = Alkalinty v.s. Alkaline

  • Alkalinity (acidification) means that the pH is less than 7.0 = acidic
  • Alkaline means that pH is greater than 7.0 = alkaline

5.3.4 Contributors to the Acidification of Blood and Urine

Toxic and acid forming foods like:

  • Processed sugars. i.e.;
    • Cane sugar;
    • Beet sugar;
    • Pasturized honey;
      • Organic raw unpasturized honey is not a processed sugar, is not acidifying and has many health benefits;
  • Refined grains;
  • Factory farm - also known as concentrated animal feeding operations – CAFO produced meats and dairy;
  • GMO organisms.

5.3.5 At-Home Monitoring of pH

You can purchase home pH testing kits from a pharmacy to monitor the pH level of your dog’s or cat’s urine. This is recommended when dealing with active urinary tract stones and monitoring for the redevelopment of stones.

  • To obtain an accurate reading:
  • pH testing should always be done in the morning prior to feeding;
  • Fresh urine must be used for the test;
  • You can hold the pH tape (litmus paper) in the urine stream;
  • You can collect a little of the urine in a container and then dip the tape into the container;
  • Obtaining the urine from your cat may be more difficult than from a dog. You may need to devise a special litter box in order to divert/catch some of the urine in a second container underneath the litter box.

6.0 Inflammatory Diets - Crystal and Stone
      Forming and Aggravating



Why do so many dogs and cats end up acquiring urinary tract stones...

The big culprit is diet...Well, as you read above a small percentage of our companion animals do have a metabolic genetic predisposition which can cause the formation of stones. But, for the most part the greater percentage of companion animals fall victim to the development of stones due to the modern day commercial pet food diet. The stones are from due to acquired issues rather than because of genetic issues.

Even those companion animals that acquire stones as a secondary condition from an illness (such as Cushing’s disease, a condition in which the pituitary gland releases excess adrenocorticotropic hormone - ACTH) may still fall into the category of acquired rather than genetic predisposition as the triggering secondary diseases are often caused by inappropriate diet.

Dogs and cats that are on an exclusively
dry food diet – particularly those that are on a high-carbohydrate grain-in diet that is low in good source protein can end-up with a very out-of-balance pH that is not found in dogs on a more species appropriate diet. High carbohydrate grain-in diets that are also low in good source protein, high in poor source Omega-6 fatty acids and low in moisture create inflammation. While it is important for all dogs and cats to be on an anti-inflammatory diet – an inflammatory diet can really create additional suffering and damage for a dog or cat that has crystals and stones.
Many of the commercial dog and cat food,  dog and cat food, treats and dental chew are grain-based, meaning that these products don’t just contain a little grain, instead the bulk of the product IS grain. Some of these products also contain refined sugars – which are also inflammatory.


Grain is the seed of grass.
The actual blade of certain grasses is part of a dog’s and cat’s natural diet.  In their natural state a dog and cat may ingest minimal amounts of predigested, unprocessed whole grain when consuming small prey. But have you ever observed a dog or cat eating copious quantities of the grass seeds? No, just the blade of grasses. Dogs and cats are not evolved to derive the majority of their daily food intake from grains. Cats are true carnivores, and dogs are omnivores with their main requirements being meat protein, then fat.
 

Cats’ and dogs’ digestive systems were never intended to digest and eliminate highly processed dry food, their digestive and eliminatory systems where evolved to function with a diet that was unprocessed – natural and high in moisture content (fresh meat). Dry foods can actually lead to clinical dehydration.

Grains, particularly highly processed cereal grains (i.e. corn) are inflammatory. By default, the very nature of processed dog and cat food is carcinogenic as in the process of making the food both meat and legumes are cooked once and often twice at very high temperatures. Cooking meat and legumes at high temperatures – particularly for long periods of time creates chemical changes in meat and legumes, resulting in carcinogenic properties within the food.
You can read about that here.

Grains get converted (by the body – cat, dog, human) very quickly to sugar.
This creates elevated insulin levels. Elevated insulin levels are linked to most chronic degenerative diseases – including diabetes and premature aging. In the absence of sufficient Omega-3 fatty acids (a natural anti-inflammatory for body and brain) the impacts are even more significant, you can read about that
here.

Since the 1950’s (when grain-in processed dry dog food gained popularity) the greed of the pet food industry superseded the actual requirements of our companion animals, and the result has not been good for our dogs and cats. In-fact prior to the popularization of processed dog food – back when dogs 
people food’ and people ate real food dogs lived twice the lifespan that they do today. Golden Retrievers are a good-bad example. Golden’s are now known as the ‘golden cancer dog’, with a life expectancy averaging between 8 to 10 years. Prior to the 1950’s a Golden’s average life span was 16 to 18 years of age.

Understanding the above creates a solid foundation upon which proper diet can be understood and the formation of non-metabolic caused stones avoided.

Don't put your faith and trust in the pet food manufacturer, do your research -

The claims of many pet food manufacturers, that their processed dry food is...

  • *Nutritionally complete – not even the most expensive products;
  • *Species appropriate;
  • *All natural;
  • *Wholesome;
Is not an assurance of safety or quality as the terms  - nutritionally complete, species appropriate, all natural, wholesome; are completely unregulated and therefore have no legal and binding meaning. The manufacturer can and in many cases does use these terms despite the fact that the food may contain multiple toxins, carcinogens and is not nutritionally complete, wholesome or all natural. To label dry food as species appropriate defies objective logic.

I have reviewed many dry foods from around the world and have not seen one dry food that could claim to be nutritionally complete. A good example of the failure to be nutritionally complete can be seen by analyzing the ratio of Omega-3 to Omega-6 fatty acids provided by dry food products. To be nutritionally complete in respect to delivering the right balance of Omega 3 to 6 fatty acids a food would have to provide 2 parts Omega-3 to every 1 part omega-6. Check the dry food you are currently feeding your dog or cat - I guarantee the Omega balance is out.

Another popular and very misleading term used on product advertising and promotion is the  word 'probiotics'. Processed dry food products are not capable of providing viable *probiotics. The pet-food industry as pertains to dry food is scamming pet owners. You can 
read here to understand more about probiotics and why it is impossible for dry food to contain viable probiotics.

Don't depend on 
AAFCO (a non-governmental organization consisting of animal feed lobyists and manufacturers), or on the FDA, Health Canada, etc. as all of these organizations permit many toxins (for example read here), carcinogens and other inappropriate food-stuffs to be included in dog and cat food and health are products (for example read here).

*Popular terms but not regulated terms in the pet food industry – meaning that manufacturers can state that their food is any or all of these terms, but they do not have to prove it, and certainly do not have to conform to a standard that might represent the term. And just to note – wet dog food fares no better.


7.0 Prescription Dog and Cat Food for
      Bladder and Kidney Stones – Health
      Supporting or Health Threatening?



7.1 Overview, at Issue - Health Supporting or Health
Threatening?
A little further below are several of the most popular veterinarian prescribed dry dog foods for dogs with urinary and renal tract issues including bladder and kidney stones. Each manufacturer’s product also has a version for cats. These products are expensive and are only available for purchase through a veterinary practice (office, hospital). Although the pet food companies that make these veterinarian prescribed foods claim that these foods will help your dog or cat – these foods (examples below) can actually make your animal’s condition worse. These foods would not be good for a healthy dog or cat, let alone a dog or cat with serious health issues. These foods are inflammatory, packed with toxins and carcinogens and sparse on nutrition. They are also very low in protein. Having read the preceding section of this article you have seen that most uroliths (stones) do not require a meat protein restricted diet - instead the diet may simply require that certain types of meat protein be minimized while other types remain at a normal intake level.

Each of these products contain corn and corn derivatives. The majority of North American grown corn is genetically engineered to produce Bt (Bacillus thuringienses) toxin. Bt is a bacterium that is used as a biological pesticide. Bt kills bugs by making their stomachs explode. The Bt that has been genetically engineered to reside in the corn is not destroyed when the corn is harvested. Studies now show that Bt toxin is able to survive the journey through the digestive track and can make your cat and dog allergic to a wide range of substances. One of the reasons that so many dogs and cats are becoming allergic to a wide range of foods and environmental triggers...

  • Take a look at the ingredients;
  • Re-read the dietary requirements for treating and preventing the various types of bladder and kidney stones as provided further above and below;
  • Go look at the ingredient list on the food you are currently feeding your dog or cat – if the list is similar or the same to the contents of the example prescription foods below, your dog’s, cat’s health may be at further serious risk;
  • I am adding links to some of the ingredients – you can go to the link to understand just how harmful this ingredient is for a healthy dog or cat, and worse for a dog or cat fighting disease and illness. I am also including additional notes in green text after some ingredients...
Immediately below I am providing a high-level summary of the dietary requirements of each stone type. You can also go back to the earlier sections of this article to see the condition requirements in detail/ You can also go to section 9.0 to see detailed dietary recommendations. This should assist you in assessing if these foods are really appropriate to support the treatment and resolution of bladder and kidney stones as well, the overall health of your dog and cat...

Calcium Phosphate and CaOx
Dogs and cats that have Calcium Phosphate or Calcium Oxide (CaOx) stones should not be on a protein restricted diet. The diet should consist of appropriate good source: protein, fruits and vegetables, omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, select carbohydrates and if grains must be included only specific grains, digestive enzymes, viable probiotics and a high intake of moisture rich foods and appropriate fluids.

Cystine Stones

Dogs and cats that have cystine stones need to be on a restricted intake of cysteine and methionone rich protein foods and require a high intake of moisture rich foods and appropriate fluids. Dry food cannot satisfy the health requirements of treating this stone.

Silica Stones
Dogs and cats that have silica stones need to be on a silica restricted diet and require a high intake of moisture rich foods and appropriate fluids. The best diet  for the treatment of these stones is a bones and raw food (BARF) diet that is high in protein and fat and low in plant -based ingredients.

Struvite Stones  
Dogs and cats with struvite stones should maintain a high intake of protein, a low intake of carbohydrates - especially starchy carbohydrates and require a high intake of moisture rich foods and appropriate fluids.

Mixed and Compound Stones

The type of diet to treat these stones must be targeted appropriately to address the mineral composition of the stone’s inner core. Once the type of mineral at the core of the stone is identified, a proper diet can be selected from the many options provided in this article. A high intake of moisture rich foods and appropriate fluids are also required.

 

7.2 Example Prescription Diets for Renal Issues including Urloliths/Stones


7.2.1 Example One

Hill’s Prescription, Product ‘Canine Urinary Tract Health’
Whole Grain Corn (this is GMO corn - causes the growth of tumors, high in pesticide residue, endocrine disrupting, serotonin suppressor, immune system suppressor, known carcinogen and additional health destructors, it is very low in nutritional value and is a very inexpensive bulk filler), Pork Fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and citric acid) can be from D4 sources (dead, diseased, dying and disabled animals), rancid fat and highly questionable quality as it is usually from the end production of restaurants and human food processing. Source of mixed tocopherols is usually GMO high pesticide residue oils, Chicken By-Product Meal by-product is beaks, claws, legs and any other part of the chicken that cannot be used in human-grade food, so it is used in pet food instead), Soybean Meal, (this is GMO soy - high in pesticide residue, endocrine disrupting, known carcinogen and additional health destructors), Corn Gluten Meal (from GMO corn), Soybean Mill Run (again GMO soy), Chicken Liver Flavor (artificial flavour - contains toxins), Lactic Acid, Calcium Sulfate, Soybean Oil, Flaxseed, Iodized Salt (stone enabling for some types of stones, meant to increase fluid consumption by making dog thirsty for other types of stones), L-Lysine, Choline Chloride, Dicalcium Phosphate, vitamins (L-Ascorbyl-2-Polyphosphate (source of vitamin C), Vitamin E Supplement, Niacin, Thiamine Mononitrate, Vitamin A Supplement, Calcium Pantothenate, Biotin, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Riboflavin, Folic Acid, Vitamin D3 Supplement), Vitamin E Supplement, Taurine, Potassium Chloride, minerals (Ferrous Sulfate, Zinc Oxide, Copper Sulfate, Manganous Oxide, Calcium Iodate, Sodium Selenite), preserved with Mixed Tocopherols & Citric Acid, Phosphoric Acid, Beta-Carotene, Rosemary Extract.
Carbohydrate 47. % - critically high and from very poor source.
Protein 22.3%- very low and from poor source, not suitable for long-term use. Fat 22.1% - the breakdown of Omega-3 to Omega-6 fatty acids is undisclosed, which indicates that it is for off the correct balance, poor source, critically low, damaging if fed long-term
Crude Fiber 2.7%
Phosphorus 0.6%

7.2.2 Example Two
Hill’s Prescription Diet, Product ‘Canine Renal Health’

Brewers Rice (a by-product left-over from the processing of rice for human consumption – it is very low in nutritional value and is a very inexpensive bulk filler), Pork Fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and citric acid) can be from D4 sources (dead, diseased, dying and disabled animals), rancid fat and highly questionable quality as it is usually from the end production of restaurants and human food processing. Source of mixed tocopherols is usually GMO high pesticide residue oils, Dried Egg Product (Is not the same as ‘egg’. Egg Product comes the waste product from egg grading facilities, egg breaking facilities, and hatcheries, dried egg product is the egg waste that has been turned into a dry powder product. It is found in low-grade dog food), Flaxseed, Corn Gluten Meal (from GMO corn), Chicken Liver Flavor (artificial flavour - contains toxins), Powdered Cellulose (an inexpensive filler made from wood pulp, it increases the column of the food but has no nutritional value and can be contaminated with toxins. The pet food manufacturer can save up to 30% of the cost of using better ingredients by using powdered cellulose), Lactic Acid, Calcium Carbonate, Dried Beet Pulp, L-Lysine, Potassium Chloride, Potassium Citrate, Choline Chloride, Iodized Salt (stone enabling for some types of stones, meant to increase fluid consumption by making dog thirsty for other types of stones) , Calcium Sulfate, vitamins (L-Ascorbyl-2-Polyphosphate (source of vitamin C), Vitamin E Supplement, Niacin, Thiamine Mononitrate, Vitamin A Supplement, Calcium Pantothenate, Biotin, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Riboflavin, Folic Acid, Vitamin D3 Supplement), Vitamin E Supplement, L-Threonine, Taurine, minerals (Ferrous Sulfate, Zinc Oxide, Copper Sulfate, Manganous Oxide, Calcium Iodate, Sodium Selenite), L-Tryptophan, Magnesium Oxide, preserved with Mixed Tocopherols & Citric Acid, Phosphoric Acid, Beta-Carotene, Rosemary
Carbohydrate 59.9% - poor source carbohydrates, critically high - inflammatory
Protein 14.3% - poor source, critically low, damagingly low if fed long-term
Fat 19.5% - the breakdown of Omega-3 to Omega-6 fatty acids is undisclosed, which indicates that it is far off the correct balance.
Crude Fiber 2.4%
Phosphorus 0.2

7.2.3 Example Three
Royal Canine, Product ‘Veterinary Diet Urinary SO Dry Dog Food’
Brewers Rice (a by-product left-over from the processing of rice for human consumption – it is very low in nutritional value and is a very inexpensive bulk filler), Corn (this is GMO corn - causes the growth of tumours, high in pesticide residue, endocrine disrupting, serotonin suppressor, immune system suppressor, known carcinogen and additional health destructors, it is very low in nutritional value and is a very inexpensive bulk filler), chicken fat, chicken meal, natural flavors, Dried Egg Product (comes the waste product from egg grading facilities, egg breaking facilities, and hatcheries, dried egg product is the egg waste that has been turned into a dry powder product. It is found in low-grade dog food), Corn Gluten Meal (from GMO corn), salt (stone enabling for some types of stones, meant to increase fluid consumption by making dog thirsty for other types of stones)  , Powdered Cellulose (an inexpensive filler made from wood pulp, it increases the column of the food but has no nutritional value and can be contaminated with toxins. The pet food manufacturer can save up to 30% of the cost of using better ingredients by using powdered cellulose), potassium chloride, fish oil, calcium carbonate, potassium phosphate, calcium sulfate, taurine, choline chloride, vitamins [DL-alpha tocopherol acetate (source of vitamin E), biotin, D-calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), vitamin A acetate, niacin supplement, thiamine mononitrate (vitamin B1), riboflavin supplement (vitamin B2), folic acid, vitamin B12 supplement, vitamin D3 supplement], marigold extract (Tagetes erecta L.), trace minerals [zinc oxide, ferrous sulfate, zinc proteinate, manganese proteinate, copper sulfate, manganous oxide, copper proteinate, calcium iodate, sodium selenite], rosemary extract, preserved with natural mixed tocopherols and citric acid.
Carbohydrate the manufacturer doesn’t even list the percentage of carbohydrates - however they are poor source critically high.
Crude Protein (min) 14.00% poor source, critically low, damagingly low if fed long-term
Crude Fat (min) 14.00% out of which the Omega-3 fatty acids are poor source, critically low, damagingly low if fed long-term
Crude Fiber (max) 4.60%
Moisture (max) 10.00%

7.2.4 Example Four

Product Purina ‘Veterinary Diets NF Kidney Function Canine Formula Dry’
Ground Yellow Corn (this is GMO corn - causes the growth of tumours, high in pesticide residue, endocrine disrupting, serotonin suppressor, immune system suppressor, known carcinogen and additional health destructors, it is very low in nutritional value and is a very inexpensive bulk filler), Brewers Rice (a by-product left-over from the processing of rice for human consumption – it is very low in nutritional value and is a very inexpensive bulk filler), egg product (Is not the same as ‘egg’. Egg Product comes the waste product from egg grading facilities, egg breaking facilities, and hatcheries, dried egg product is the egg waste that has been turned into a dry powder product. It is found in low-grade dog food) , beef tallow preserved with mixed tocopherols (source of Vitamin E) can be from D4 sources (dead, diseased, dying and disabled animals), rancid fat and highly questionable quality as it is usually from the end production of restaurants and human food processing. Source of mixed tocopherols is usually GMO high pesticide residue oils, sugar (stone enhancing inflammatory, increases Omega-6 levels which in the absence of enough Omega-3 causes inflammation of brain cells, low serotonin levels, decreases PS levels, causes diabetes and is a trigger for cancer, causes dental problems, dogs do not require sugar in their diet!), dried whey, sodium caseinate, calcium carbonate, vegetable oil (from GMO sources, high in pesticides, endocrine disrupting, cancer causing, immune system suppressing), animal digest, potassium citrate, potassium chloride, fish oil, choline chloride, salt (stone enabling for some types of stones), ferrous sulfate, vitamin supplements (E, A, B-12, D-3), zinc oxide, riboflavin supplement, manganese sulfate, niacin, calcium pantothenate, biotin, copper sulfate, thiamine mononitrate, folic acid, pyridoxine hydrochloride, garlic oil, menadione sodium bisulfite complex (source of Vitamin K activity) toxic to kidneys, liver, mucous membranes, repeated or prolonged ingestion can produce damage to target organs, carcinogen and mutagen, calcium iodate, sodium selenite.
Carbohydrate, 56.94% poor source carbohydrates are critically high and inflammatory
Protein, 14.40% poor source, critically low, damagingly low if fed long-term
Total Omega-3, 0.27% poor source, critically low, damagingly low if fed long-term
Total Omega-6, 2.51% poor source
Phosphorus, %0.26%

7.2.5 Additional Analysis the above Examples

Protein
  • All of these foods are very low in protein...
    • CaOx Stones – dogs and cats with CaOx stones should maintain a high intake of protein and low oxalate foods and a high intake of moisture rich foods and fluids. 
    • Cystine Stones – dogs and cats that have cystine stones need to be on a restricted intake of cysteine and methionone rich protein foods and should have a high intake of moisture rich foods and fluids. 
    • Struvite Stones - Dogs with struvite stones should maintain a high intake of protein, a low intake of carbohydrates, especially starchy carbohydrates and should have a high intake of moisture rich foods and fluids. 
    • Uric Acid Stones – dogs and cats with Uric Acid stones need a low purine diet; 
    • And should have a high intake of moisture rich foods and fluids.
Fats
Good source purified  omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are very important for the health of your dog and cat – the Omega fatty acids provided in these dog foods are of highly questionable quality and the percentage of Omega-3 fatty acids are critically low.

Grains and Other Fillers
Grains as noted further above are inflammatory, crystal and stone forming and species inappropriate and should not be part of a dog’s or cat’s diet.

Condemned Denatured Meat
All of these prescription pet food products contain condemned, denatured meat - this type of meat is toxic and carcinogenic - read about that here. 
 
Moisture
  • A dog’s and cat’s digestive and elimination system IS NOT designed to digest, process and eliminate dry food, it is evolved to process moist food;

    • While dogs and cats are omnivores the largest portion of their daily food intake was – ancestrally, raw real meat protein – a substance that is high in moisture;

    • When the renal system (bladder, kidney and liver) are forced to process and eliminate food with little moisture content these organs must work harder – which prematurely wears the organs out;

    • As well, in the absence of moisture minerals can build-up and then crystallize in the bladder and/or kidney – this is how bladder and kidney stones are formed;

    • Dry dog and cat food is lacking in moisture;

    • During digestion and elimination the dry food actually robs the body of moisture as any moisture I the gut is absorbed by the dry food;

    • The example prescription dog food formulas provided above are very high in bulk fillers which require even more moisture to process. 
Toxic Loading
  • These example foods are also very, very high in toxins;

    • Your dog’s and cat’s kidneys and liver is his/her natural detoxer;

    • These organs were not designed to take the toxic load forced upon them by the inappropriate ingredients that make up these foods;

    • These foods create to large a toxic burden (load) on the dog’s system;

    • The end result is a build-up of toxins in the body that cannot be eliminated, worn-out organs, immune system suppression and further illness.

7.2.6 Tested on Dogs and Cats...You bet these products are...but not quite the way you may be assuming...


It is well known and well documented that Hill’s and Purina practice cruel and lethal testing on cats and dogs – for which there is no excuse. There are so many humane alternatives – a proven fact as many other pet food companies have chosen to adopt these more humane and effective research methods. And where are Hill’s and Purina getting their ‘research cats and dogs from? Well there are only three sources – 1) facilities that breed these companion animals just for this purpose, 2) from pound seizure, or 3) from the dog’s or cat’s faithless owner, who has tired of looking after the dog or cat and rather than surrender their dog or cat to a no kill shelter or rescue group, instead decides to surrender their animal to lethal research testing facility. Not only will these foods not support your own dog’s or cat’s health they also rob other dogs and cats of their life – in the most cruel  of ways. I will leave you to determine what drives these companies to produce the products they sell – concern for your dog’s and cat’s well being, or greed and avarice. It deeply disturbs me that so many dogs, cats and their loving people suffer due to the lack of ethics of the pet food industry.



7.2.7 At This Point You May be Wondering Why Your Veterinarian Prescribes These Products...
Many of you will be wondering why your veterinarian would prescribe something that was not good for your dog or cat and charge you a lot of money for that product. The answer is very simple…

Practitioners of modern medicine also called allopathic medicine (human, canine, feline, etc.):

Allopathic veterinarians are not taught to understand nutrition or analyze the contents of food or medicine in a thorough or objective fashion. While studying veterinary sciences at university veterinary students get one week (out of an entire four year university course) to ‘study’ and ‘learn’ about nutrition. During that week the majority (if not all) of the material studies is supplied to the university by the big pet food manufacturers.

Your veterinarian (unless he/she is a practitioner of CAM – conventional and alternate medicine) is:

  • Well trained to understand and expertly perform standard and emergency medicine;
    • Modern medicine is designed to address illness and disease post development;
    • Modern Medicine is designed to react to and treat acquired conditions, it is not designed to strategically enable and maintain overall health and well being.


8.0 Bladder or Kidney Stone (or Crystal)
     Diets & Recipes for Each Stone Type



Go Organic - as much as you can afford to...

Dogs and cats that are suffering from bladder and kidney stones have a renal system that is already taxed and stressed. It is important to limit – as much as possible, their exposure to ingested toxins, for this reason organic sourced food can really help you further reduce the load on your dog’s or cat’s system...



8.1 Fluids - for all Stone Types
 
Offer plenty of appropriate fluids, along with water as noted below offering dome variety will help encourage your dog and cat to take-in more fluids...
Drinking Water
  • Used distilled water only;
  • No tap, mineral or well water unless you distil it.
Broth  
  • Add broth to the meal and/or offer a bowl of broth next to the water bowl (don’t leave the broth out for more than 15 minutes as it must be refrigerated to avoid spoiling;
  • You can use the recipe for homemade broth provided in this article;
  • The broth can also be frozen in ice cube trays and provided as a treat;
  • Don’t use commercially made broth (even organic broths) unless you are sure that the ingredients do not contain salt, sugar, artificial food coloring etc.
Tart Red Cherry Juice
  • You can offer your dog or cat a little tart red cheery juice on a daily basis:
  • Use only unsweetened, no sugar or artificial sweeteners;
  • Tart red cherries contain antioxidant compound called anthocyanins that have been identified as having a high antioxidant capacity and are inflammation reducers – comparable to well known pain medications such as aspirin. 
 Cranberry Juice
  • You can offer your dog or cat a little cranberry juice on a daily basis:
  • Use only unsweetened, no sugar or artificial sweeteners;
  • Cranberry can help prevent bacteria from attaching to the lining of the stomach and urinary tract;
  • Cranberries also contain the anti-inflammatory reducer anthocyanins;
  • Cranberry gains efficacy if it is provided two to three times a day rather than just once a day;
  • Fresh cranberries (as opposed to extract of cranberries as found in juice, or powdered as found in supplements) offer greater potency for supporting liver and cardiovascular health;
  • Try putting whole fresh or frozen thawed cranberries in a blender with a little orange juice to make a puree for your dog or cat - this can be mixed into some food.
  • Caution - remember for Cysteine stones do not use cranberry, use lemon instead.



8.2 Calcium Phosphate Stones and CaOx
      Stones

  • Years ago it was thought that a diet of restricted protein and phosphorous was key to reducing the risk of Calcium Phosphate stones and CaOx stones – however this approach is a) outdated and, b) incorrect.
  • Further research showed that the former approach was wrong as:
    • Restricting dietary phosphorous increased calcium absorption thereby increasing the risk of stone formation;
    • Higher levels of protein reduced the risk of kidney stones.
  • Research has proven dogs and cats that are prone to forming CaOx stones:
    • Should not be on a diet that restricts calcium, phosphorous or protein;
    • Should not be on a diet that is high in carbohydrates;
    • Should be on a diet that is high in good quality protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and moisture/liquid.



8.2.1 What the Diet Should Consist Of



8.2.1.1 Moderate oxalate foods can be included in
           moderate amounts
:

  • Fruit;
    • Blackberries, blueberries, clementines, mandarins, oranges (no grapefruit) - preparation is important to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients – read about that here.
  • Vegetables:
    • Carrots, celery, green beans, potatoes - preparation is important to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients – read about that here.
  • Legumes (Pulses):
    • Adzuki, kidney, pinto beans;
  • Grains or Squash;
    • Go grain-free which is what I prefer and use squash rather than grains, or:
    • Use bulgar, brown rice or oatmeal.
8.2.1.2 Low Oxalate foods can be included in
            unrestricted amounts
:

  • Seeds:
    • Coconut, flax seeds (ground), pumpkin seeds, squash seeds, sunflower seeds;
  • Fruit;
    • Apple, apricot (fresh); banana, cherries, cranberries, lemon, melons (all types), nectarine, papaya, passion fruit, peach, pear, pineapple, plum, raspberries, strawberries, Saskatoon berries, thimble berries – preparation is important to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients – read about that here.
  • Vegetables:
    • Asparagus, broccoli and broccoli sprouts, Brussels sprouts, cabbage (and fresh sauerkraut), cauliflower, cucumber, lettuce – romaine, red leaf, green leaf, frizzy, radicchio; string beans (all colours), kelp, sweet bell peppers (all colours), zucchini – preparation is important to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients – read about that here.
  • Legumes (Pulses):
    • Black-eyed peas, chickpeas, lentils, lima beans, split peas;
  • Herbs:
    • Basil, garlic, sage, spearmint, rosemary.
  • Dairy:
    • Cottage cheese, cheese (not processed cheese), kefir, yogurt;
    • Egg;
  • Meat:
    • Red meat – i.e. beef, bison, lamb;
    • Poultry - i.e  chicken, turkey, duck;
    • Fish – i.e. mackerel, salmon, sardines;
    • Organ meats (i.e. liver) - in moderation.
  • Fat:
    • Omega-3 fatty acids;
      • Norwegian Krill oil;
      • Wild Alaskan Salmon oil;
  • Omega-6 fatty acids.
    • Coconut Oil;
    • or one of the following...
      • Flaxseed Oil;
      • Hempseed Oil;
      • Olive Oil;        
      • Sunflower Oil.
  • Grains, or Squash
    • Go grain-free which is what I prefer and use squash rather than grains, or:
    • Use wild rice.

8.2.1.3 Ensure you include some of these foods (on a
           daily basis), that are rich in:
  • Magnesium
    • Banana, dairy, the following unrefined whole grains - buckwheat, bulgar, oats, wild rice; pumpkin seeds, mackerel, beans as listed further below.
  • Potassium
    • Acorn squash, banana, fish, yogurt.
  • Vitamin B6
    • Banana, chicken, salmon, herbs/spices – basil, garlic, sage, spearmint, rosemary, turmeric; turkey.



8.2.1.4 Feeding Dry Dog or Cat Food – supplement as
           follows:

  • Make sure that the ingredients in the commercial dry or wet dog or cat food (this includes veterinarian prescribed dry and wet dog and cat food) align with the guidelines for permissible foods provided above.
  • You will need to supplement the dry food with real food – so at mealtime add a selection of the following on top of the dry food…
    • Meat Protein – select from the list of appropriates meats provided above;
    • Egg;
    • Dairy
    • Omega-3  fatty acids, select one from the list provided above;
    • Omega-6 fatty acid – Coconut Oil, benefits and dosage here;
    • Digestive Enzymes
      • Add fresh papaya to each meal – preparation and dosage as provided in this article, or;
      • Purchase a papaya-based digestive enzyme supplement that does not contain any fillers or toxins.
    • Herb - Lysimachia-3 (traditional Chinese herbal medicine), tablet form – grind/crush to a powder and add to food at feeding time as follows:
      • Until stones are dissolved - two times daily, one 700mg tablet for every 25 pounds of body weight
      • After stones are dissolved – for one month, two times daily, one 700mg tablet for every 25 pounds of body weight;
      • After one month – the same dosage but every other day for 2 weeks;
      •  After 2 weeks – the same dosage three times a week alternate weeks (give it one week, then not the next week, then give it the following week)'
      •  Then daily for one week, then no dosage for 3 to 5 weeks, and repeat 1 week out of every 3 to 5 weeks.
    • Calcium Citrate;
      • Calcium Citrate is the calcium salt from citric acid. Calcium Citrate attracts calcium away from oxalates;
        Add calcium citrate to food at feeding time or to the food recipe when you are making the food – mix in thoroughly:
        • 1,000 mg per pound of fresh food added to diet;
    • Cranberry;
      • Add cranberry extract or fresh/frozen finely chopped cranberries to the diet – this will help to acidify the urine and reduce inflammation of the bladder or kidney wall;
    • Glucosamine:
      • This will help to reduce inflammation of the bladder or kidney wall;
      • Human grade is fine, you do not have to purchase from a pet store.



8.2.1.5 Feeding a Homemade Diet - supplement as
           follows
; note a link to a homemade food recipe is
           provided further below this list... 

  • Omega-3  fatty acids, select one from the list provided above;
  • Omega-6 fatty acid – Coconut Oil, benefits and dosage here;
  • Digestive Enzymes
    • Add fresh papaya to each meal – preparation as provided in this article;
    • Minimum Dosage:
      • Small Size Dogs and Cats - ½ tsp to 1 tsp
      • Medium Size dogs – 1 tsp to ½ tbs
      • Large Size Dogs – ½ tbs to 1 tbs
    • Or;
      • Purchase a papaya-based digestive enzyme supplement that does not contain any fillers or toxins.
  • Herb - Lysimachia-3 (traditional Chinese herbal medicine), tablet form – grind/crush to a powder and add to food at feeding time as follows:
    • Until stones are dissolved - two times daily, one 700mg tablet for every 25 pounds of body weight
    • After stones are dissolved – for one month, two times daily, one 700mg tablet for every 25 pounds of body weight;
    • After one month – the same dosage but every other day for 2 weeks;
    •  After 2 weeks – the same dosage three times a week alternate weeks (give it one week, then not the next week, then give it the following week);
    • Then daily for one week, then no dosage for 3 to 5 weeks, and repeat 1 week out of every 3 to 5 weeks.
  • Calcium Citrate (attracts calcium away from oxalates);
    • Add to food at feeding time or to the food recipe when you are making the food – mix in thoroughly:
      • 30 to 40 mg per every ounce of food;
      • 500 to 625 mg per pound of food.
  • Magnesium (only add if your dog does not have renal failure, in which case you must: a) use magnesium as a supplement only upon consulting your veterinarian, and; b) cease use when stones are no longer an issue);
    • Add to food at meal time, mix in well:
      • 3 to 5 mg per every pound of body weight daily – total amount required by body weight should be divided up equally and split between two daily meals;
    • Introduce to the diet slowly at half the dosage (i.e. 1 mg per pound of body weight to give your dog’s body time to adjust to processing the magnesium – if introduced to quickly at a higher dosage can cause diarrhea.
  • Vitamins
    • B-Complex Vitamins
      • Daily Dosage – add to food at mealtime:
        • Extra small dogs 2 to 12 pounds - 12 mg two times a day;
        • Small dogs 13 to 49 pounds – up to 25 mg two times a day;
        • Dogs 50 lbs or more – 50 mg two times a day.
  • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin E is best absorbed by the body from real food sources;
    • Vitamin E is a generic term for a family of at least eight related molecules – all of which are highly beneficial;
    • Most vitamin E found in supplements contain only one of these molecules - alpha-tocopherol, this means that the supplements are missing the other more beneficial forms of Vitamin E;
        • To ensure your dog or cat receives enough vitamin E supplement their daily meals with the following:
        • Organic Coconut oil, organic wheat germ oil, fresh papaya, cranberries, raspberries, carrots;
      • or...
      • Use a Vitamin Supplement:
        • Add to food at meal time, mix in well:
        • Once daily, 1 to 2 IUs per pound of body weight;
  • Cranberry:
    • Add cranberry extract or fresh/frozen finely chopped cranberries to the diet – this will help to acidify the urine, reduce inflammation of the bladder or kidney wall and prevent bacteria from forming.
  • Glucosamine:
    • This will help to reduce inflammation of the bladder or kidney wall;
    • Human grade is fine, you do not have to purchase from a pet store.



8.2.1.6 You can use this Homemade Food Recipe
 
You will need to make the following minor adjustments to the recipe by substituting as follows:
  • Leave the spinach out of the recipe substitute with veggies (from the list provided above);
  • Leave the turmeric out of the recipe, don’t substitute with anything;
    Leave the garlic out of the recipe, don’t substitute with anything;
  • Leave the sweet potatoes out of the grain-free recipe – use squash instead;
  • If you are using the grain-in recipe use brown or wild rice with a little bulgar or oatmeal.

Additional Essential Supplement for Cats - Taurine
For cats, it is essential that you add Taurine to the recipe provided above;
  • Standard non-Therapeutic Dosage
    • Minimum – 100 mg (one hundred milligrams ) of Taurine for every 1 kg (one kilogram) or 2.2 pounds of cat food;
    • Maximum – 300 mg (three hundred milligrams ) of Taurine for every 1 kg (one kilogram) or 2.2 pounds of cat food.


8.3 Diet Struvite Stones




Dogs and cats with struvite stones should maintain a high intake of protein, a low intake of purine –rich foods, a low intake of carbohydrates, especially starchy carbohydrates and should have a high intake of moisture rich foods and fluids in order to reduce urine pH. A species appropriate diet is best diet for a dog or cat with struvite stones.

A low protein intake is not required to dissolve struvite stones, a low protein intake may simply help to speed up the dissolution of the stones, however;
  • It is not safe for a dog or cat to be on a low-protein diet for more than several months;
  • Low protein diets should not be given to puppies at all.

8.3.1 What the Diet Should Consist Of
  • Fruit;
    • Particularly - blackberries, blueberries, cranberries, clementines, lemon, mandarins, oranges, mulberries, tart cherries - preparation is important to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients, also all of the fruit on this list with the exception of avocados. Preparation is important to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients – read about that here
  • Vegetables:
    • All the vegetables on this list here with the exception of asparagus, broccoli and cauliflower - preparation is important to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients – read about that here.
    • Fresh sauerkraut as described in this article – no wine sauerkraut; you can make your own low-salt sauerkraut using this recipe.
  • Nuts:
    • Peanut butter (all natural only);
  • Grains or Squash;
    • Go grain-free which is what I prefer and use squash rather than grains, or;
    • Use brown rice or wild rice.
  • Dairy:
    • Cottage cheese, cheese (not processed cheese), kefir, yogurt;
    • Eggs;
  • Meat:
    • Chicken, Turkey.
  • Fat:



8.3.2 Example Homemade Diet for a Dog or Cat with
         Struvite Stones

  • 1 cup minced chicken or turkey;
    • or ½ cup chicken or turkey and ½ cup cod, perch, pike or sole;
  • 1 cup squash i.e. acorn squash, butternut squash, crookneck or spaghetti squash;
  • 1 large cooked egg (hard boiled);
  • ½ cup steamed veggies;
  • ½ cup puréed fruit;
  • 2 tbs yogurt;
  • 1 tbs fresh sauerkraut;
  • Norwegian Cod Liver Oil (omega-3 fatty acid)
    • 1/8 tsp small dogs and cats;
    • 1/2 tsp medium, dogs;
    • 1 tsp large dogs.
  • Flax Oil (omega-6 fatty acid)
    • 1/16 tsp small dogs and cats;
    • 1/8 tsp medium, dogs;
    • 1/2 tsp large dogs.
  • Probiotic supplement that conforms to the recommendations as  described in this article Digestive Enzymes, fresh papaya to each meal – preparation as provided in this article;
    • Minimum Dosage:
      • Small Size Dogs and Cats - ½ tsp to 1 tsp
      • Medium Size dogs – 1 tsp to ½ tbs
      • Large Size Dogs – ½ tbs to 1 tbs
    • or;
      • Purchase a papaya-based digestive enzyme supplement that does not contain any fillers or toxins.
  • B-Complex Vitamins
    • Daily Dosage – add to food at mealtime:
      • Extra small dogs and cats 2 to 12 pounds - 12 mg two times a day;
      • Small dogs and cats 13 to 49 pounds – up to 25 mg two times a day;
      • Dogs 50 lbs or more – 50 mg two times a day.
  • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin E is best absorbed by the body from real food sources;
    • Vitamin E is a generic term for a family of at least eight related molecules – all of which are highly beneficial;
    • Most vitamin E found in supplements contain only one of these molecules - alpha-tocopherol, this means that the supplements are missing the other more beneficial forms of Vitamin E;
    • To ensure your dog or cat receives enough vitamin E supplement their daily meals with the following:
    • Use a Vitamin Supplement:
  • Add to food at meal time, mix in well:
  • Once daily, 1 to 2 IUs per pound of body weight;
  • Cranberry;
    • Add cranberry extract or fresh/frozen finely chopped cranberries to the diet – this will help to acidify the urine, reduce inflammation of the bladder or kidney wall and prevent bacteria from forming.
  • Glucosamine:
    • This will help to reduce inflammation of the bladder or kidney wall;
  • Powdered Eggshell 
    • ½ tsp of dry, ground/crushed eggshell;
    • Powdered Eggshell is high in calcium, magnesium, boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, sulphur, silicon and zinc, and a few other (actually 27) vital elements for dogs. ½ tsp equals about 400 milligrams of absorbable calcium.
Additional Essential Supplement for Cats - Taurine
For cats, it is essential that you add Taurine to the recipe provided above;
  • Standard non-Therapeutic Dosage
    • Minimum – 100 mg (one hundred milligrams ) of Taurine for every 1 kg (one kilogram) or 2.2 pounds of cat food;
    • Maximum – 300 mg (three hundred milligrams ) of Taurine for every 1 kg (one kilogram) or 2.2 pounds of cat food.
Treats
  • 1 tbs all natural peanut butter;
  • 1 tbs of cottage cheese or ricotta cheese.




8.4 Diet Uric Acid Stones



Dogs and cats with uric acid stones should maintain a high intake of protein, a low intake of purine rich foods, a low intake of carbohydrates, especially starchy carbohydrates and should have a high intake of moisture rich foods and fluids in order to reduce uric acid in the urine.



9.4.1 Diet Details – What the Diet Should Consist Of


  • Fruit;
    • Particularly - blackberries, blueberries, cranberries, clementines, lemon, mandarins, oranges, mulberries, tart cherries - preparation is important to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients, also all of the fruit on this list with the exception of avocados. Preparation is important to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients – read about that here
  • Vegetables:
    • All the vegetables on this list here with the exception of asparagus, broccoli and cauliflower - preparation is important to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients – read about that here.
    • Fresh sauerkraut as described in this article – no wine sauerkraut, you can make your own low-salt sauerkraut using this recipe.
  • Nuts:
    • Peanut butter (all natural only);
  • Grains or Squash;
    • Go grain-free which is what I prefer and use squash rather than grains, or;
    • Use brown rice or wild rice.
  • Dairy:
    • Cottage cheese, ricotta cheese (not processed cheese), kefir, yogurt;
    • Eggs;
  • Meat:
    • Chicken, Turkey.
  • Fat:
    • Omega-3 fatty acids;
      • Norwegian Cod Liver oil.
      • Omega-6 fatty acids:
      • Flax seed oil.

8.4.2 Example Homemade Diet for a Dog or Cat with Uric
         Acid Stones
  • 1 cup minced chicken or turkey;
    • or ½ cup chicken or turkey and ½ cup cod, perch, pike or sole;
  • 1 cup squash i.e. acorn squash, butternut squash, crookneck or spaghetti squash);
  • 1 large cooked egg (hard boiled);
  • ½ cup steamed veggies;
  • ½ cup puréed fruit;
  • 2 tbs yogurt;
  • 1 tbs fresh sauerkraut
  • Norwegian Cod Liver Oil (omega-3 fatty acid)
    • 1/8 tsp small dogs and cats;
    • 1/2 tsp medium, dogs;
    • 1 tsp large dogs.
  • Flax seed Oil (omega-6 fatty acid)
    • 1/16 tsp small dogs and cats;
    • 1/8 tsp medium, dogs;
    • 1/2 tsp large dogs.
  • Probiotic supplement that conforms to the recommendations as  described in this article .
  • Digestive Enzymes, fresh papaya to each meal – preparation as provided in this article;
    • Minimum Dosage:
      • Small Size Dogs and Cats - ½ tsp to 1 tsp
      • Medium Size dogs – 1 tsp to ½ tbs
      • Large Size Dogs – ½ tbs to 1 tbs
    • Or;
    • Purchase a papaya-based digestive enzyme supplement that does not contain any fillers or toxins.
  • B-Complex Vitamins
    • Daily Dosage – add to food at mealtime:
      • Extra small dogs and cats 2 to 12 pounds - 12 mg two times a day;
      • Small dogs and cats 13 to 49 pounds – up to 25 mg two times a day;
      • Dogs 50 lbs or more – 50 mg two times a day.
  • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin E is best absorbed by the body from real food sources;
    • Vitamin E is a generic term for a family of at least eight related molecules – all of which are highly beneficial;
    • Most vitamin E found in supplements contain only one of these molecules - alpha-tocopherol, this means that the supplements are missing the other more beneficial forms of Vitamin E;
    • To ensure your dog or cat receives enough vitamin E supplement their daily meals with the following:
    • Use a Vitamin Supplement:
      • Add to food at meal time, mix in well:
      • Once daily, 1 to 2 IUs per pound of body weight;
  • Cranberry;
    • Add cranberry extract or fresh/frozen finely chopped cranberries to the diet – this will help to acidify the urine, reduce inflammation of the bladder or kidney wall and prevent bacteria from forming.
  • Glucosamine:
    • This will help to reduce inflammation of the bladder or kidney wall, you can use human grade - no need to purchase from a pet food store;
  • Powdered Eggshell 
    • ½ tsp of dry, ground/crushed eggshell;
    • Powdered Eggshell is high in calcium, magnesium, boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, sulphur, silicon and zinc, and a few other (actually 27) vital elements for dogs. ½ tsp equals about 400 milligrams of absorbable calcium.
  • Kelp
    • The best kelp is that which is most contaminant and toxin free:
      • Deep sea kelp;
      • Norwegian kelp.
    • Maximum Daily Dosage:
      • Small size dogs and cats - ¼ tsp
      • Medium size dogs - ½ tsp
      • Large size dogs – 1 tsp
Additional Essential Supplement for Cats - Taurine
For cats, it is essential that you add Taurine to the recipe provided above;
  • Standard non-Therapeutic Dosage
    • Minimum – 100 mg (one hundred milligrams ) of Taurine for every 1 kg (one kilogram) or 2.2 pounds of cat food;
    • Maximum – 300 mg (three hundred milligrams ) of Taurine for every 1 kg (one kilogram) or 2.2 pounds of cat food.
 Treats
  • 1 tbs all natural peanut butter;
  • 1 tbs of cottage cheese or ricotta cheese.






8.5 Diet Cystine Stones



Dogs and cats with cystine stones need to decrease the amount of cysteine and methionine being ingested – the major source of cysteine and methionine is meat, so meat intake must be restricted. Intake of sodium (table salt) must also be minimized and intake of fluids increased.



8.5.1 Diet Details – What the Diet Should Consist Of

  • Fruit;
    • Particularly - blackberries, blueberries, cranberries, clementines, lemon, mandarins, oranges, mulberries, tart cherries - preparation is important to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients, also all of the fruit on this list with the exception of avocados. Preparation is important to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients – read about that here
  • Vegetables:
    • All the vegetables on this list here with the exception of asparagus, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and cauliflower - preparation is important to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients – read about that here.
    • Fresh sauerkraut as described in this article – no wine sauerkraut – you can make your own low-salt sauerkraut using this recipe.
  • Nuts:
    • Peanut butter (all natural only), finely ground/chopped unsalted peanuts.
  • Legumes (Pulses):
    • Kidney Beans, Lentils;
  • Grains and Squash;
    • Brown rice, wild rice, Acorn squash, Winter Squash, Pumpkin
  • Protein:
    • Organic soy products (no salt, no sugar, no artificial sweeteners), i.e. Tofu;
    • Lentils;
    • Peanuts.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids;
    • Norwegian cod liver oil
  • Omega-6 fatty acids;
    • Coconut oil.

8.5.2 Example Homemade Diet for a Dog or
         Cat with Struvite Stones
  • 1 cup ORGANIC minced tofu, don't use non-organic tofu!;
    • or ¾ cup organic minced tofu, 1/8 cup lentils, 1/8 cup kidney beans, 2 tbs all natural peanut butter;
  • 1 cup squash i.e. acorn squash, winter squash, pumpkin
  • ½ cup steamed veggies;
  • ½ cup puréed fruit;
  • Norwegian Cod Liver Oil (omega-3 fatty acid)
    • 1/8 tsp small dogs and cats;
    • 1/2 tsp medium, dogs;
    • 1 tsp large dogs.
  • Coconut oil (omega-6 fatty acid)
    • ¼ tsp for every 10 lbs of body weight twice daily, or 
    • ½ tsp for every 10 lbs of body weight once daily.
  • Probiotic supplement that conforms to the recommendations as described in this article
  • Digestive Enzymes, fresh papaya to each meal – preparation as provided in this article
    • Minimum Dosage:
      • Small Size Dogs and Cats - ½ tsp to 1 tsp
      • Medium Size dogs – 1 tsp to ½ tbs
      • Large Size Dogs – ½ tbs to 1 tbs
    • Or;
      • Purchase a papaya-based digestive enzyme supplement that does not contain any fillers or toxins.
  • B-Complex Vitamins
    • Daily Dosage – add to food at mealtime:
      • Extra small dogs and cats 2 to 12 pounds - 12 mg two times a day;
      • Small dogs and cats 13 to 49 pounds – up to 25 mg two times a day;
      • Dogs 50 lbs or more – 50 mg two times a day.
  • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin E is best absorbed by the body from real food sources;
    • Vitamin E is a generic term for a family of at least eight related molecules – all of which are highly beneficial;
    • Most vitamin E found in supplements contain only one of these molecules - alpha-tocopherol, this means that the supplements are missing the other more beneficial forms of Vitamin E;
    • To ensure your dog or cat receives enough vitamin E supplement their daily meals with the following:
      • Organic Coconut oil, fresh papaya, cranberries, raspberries, carrots;
      • Or;
      • Use a Vitamin Supplement:
        • Add to food at meal time, mix in well:
        • Once daily, 1 to 2 IUs per pound of body weight;
  • Lemon – very important for dogs (don’t use with cats);
    • Mix fresh lemon (finely minced) into the food – this will help to reduce acidification of the urine, reduce inflammation of the bladder or kidney wall and prevent bacteria from forming;
    • Here is how to add lemon to the diet…
      • Freeze a whole lemon and grate a little over your dog’s food;
      • Add a few drops of fresh lemon juice to your dog’s or cat’s water bowl – remember to change the lemon water on a daily basis;Add fresh-grated/minced lemon to your dog’s food.I use a food processor to finely chop/mince fresh lemon.I sprinkle the finely minced lemon on top of the food once a day; Then store any remaining minced lemon in an air tight glass container (in the refrigerator) for several day;
      • Daily Dosage:
        • 1 tsp/day of minced lemon for small dogs;
        • 1 tbs/day for medium size dogs, and;
        • 1.5 to 2 tbs/day for large dogs;
    • Alternately if you do not want to use fresh lemon...You can purchase vitamin C in ascorbate Calcium ascorbate or sodium ascorbate) powder form – either generic or Ester-C.
      • If you are using ascorbate form daily dosage is:
        • 250 mg 2 x daily for every 15 to 30 lbs of body weight up to a maximum of 1,000 mg 2 x daily for larger dogs;
      • Introduce Vitamin C slowly – start by giving only ¼ of the full dosage and build-up slowly as some dogs may get diarrhea if vitamin C is introduced to quickly or their dosage tolerance has a low threshold. I have never had this issue though with any of my dogs.
  • Glucosamine:
    • This will help to reduce inflammation of the bladder or kidney wall. You can use human grade glucosamine;
  • Powdered Eggshell 
    • ½ tsp of dry, ground/crushed eggshell;
    • Powdered Eggshell is high in calcium, magnesium, boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, sulfur, silicon and zinc, and a few other (actually 27) vital elements for dogs. ½ tsp equals about 400 milligrams of absorbable calcium.
 Additional Essential Supplement for Cats - Taurine
For cats, it is essential that you add Taurine to the recipe provided above;
  • Standard non-Therapeutic Dosage
  • Minimum – 100 mg (one hundred milligrams ) of Taurine for every 1 kg (one kilogram) or 2.2 pounds of cat food;
  • Maximum – 300 mg (three hundred milligrams ) of Taurine for every 1 kg (one kilogram) or 2.2 pounds of cat food.

Treats
  • 1 tbs all natural peanut butter;
  • 1 tbs of cottage cheese or ricotta cheese.



9.0 Preventing Renal Issues - including
        the Formation of Bladder and Kidney
        Stones



If your dog or cat does not currently have bladder or kidney stones make sure you take strategic preventative precautions by getting your dog and cat on a truly health supporting diet...

  • This grain-free homemade dog food recipe provides a good example of a health supporting diet;
  • If you want to use this recipe for your cat:
    • Leave the garlic out of the recipe;
    • Add taurine;
  • A well balanced raw dog or cat food diet comprised of quality ingredients will also support good overall health.
  • If you do not have the time to feed your dog or cat homemade food, and also do not want to feed raw:
  • You will need to supplement your dog’s or cat’s diet with omega-3 fatty acids, probiotics, additional fluids, herbs, nutraceuticals and real food;
  • Make sure you are purchasing dry dog or cat food that does not contain harmful ingredients such as those found in the examples further above;
  • To learn more about selecting a good commercially manufactured dog and cat food  I recommend that you read my series of articles on Dog and Cat food.

10.0 Holistic Support

Additional Assistance - Holistic Health and Wellness Service
If you require additional support, and guidance - contact me to discuss your requirements. I will determine the appropriate course of action for your situation and I will let you know the applicable fees. I offer consultative services to clients around the world...
Diet, Nutrition Wellness Services
  • Unbiased Diet, Nutrition, Product Advice - information and payment here >>. 
  • Holistic Diet, Nutrition Wellness Plans - information and payment here >>.
Dog Obedience Training and Behavior Modification Services
  • In-Person sessions - information and payment here >>.
  • On-Line consultation and sessions - information and payment here >>.



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Note -

1.0 Use of Foods, Herbs, Nutraceuticals and Alternative Medicines:

When choosing to use any of the items or protocols in the article above, it is your responsibility to ensure safe use of the item/protocol. Food, herbs, nutraceuticals and alternative medicines all have drug interactions, most have health issue contradictions, some have side effects. Use of substances and protocols are your responsibility. Prior to use of any substance or protocol make sure you do your research - check for all cautions, contradictions,interactions, side effects. If in doubt do not use the substance or protocol. If the substance, or protocol is contradicted for your animal do not use. If your animal has an underlying condition you are not aware of substances may conflict with that condition.

2.0 The Real Meaning of Holistic…

Food, herbs, nutraceuticals and alternative medicines are NOT ‘holistic’ they are a substance and MAY, or may NOT be ‘NATURAL’. It is important to keep in mind that the supplement industry is just as unethical as BigPharma, the Food and Pet Food Industry, and unfortunately many veterinarians.

If you use a ‘natural’ substance (i.e. an herb) you are using a natural substance, this is not synonymous with holistic.

Holistic is a way of approaching life, and within that - overall health, and wellbeing.

Please do not expect a natural substance to miraculously remedy a health or behavioral situation. A natural substance may be used to treat symptoms. However, if the factors causing the underlying issue are not properly identified, analyzed and addressed you do not have a remedy.

Remedy requires a comprehensive approach that identifies root cause, seeks to remove items that trigger, cause or otherwise contribute to issues, and builds a complete, and detailed approach to immediate treatment, remedy, and maintenance of long-term health = holistic.

I offer extensive consultation services - Holistic Diet, Nutrition Wellness and Holistic Behavioral, for people that are serious about looking after their dogs and cats holistically. If you want to engage my services you can contact me via email or phone.

If you are looking for additional free advice, please refer back to the articles on my site, do not contact me via email or phone - personalized service is for my clients / patients only.

3.0
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Wishing your dog and cat the best of health!

Karen
the Ottawa Valley Dog Whisperer
Holistic Behaviorist - Dogs
Holistic Diet Nutrition Wellness Adviser – Dogs and Cats

karen@ottawavalleydogwhisperer.ca

Canada, U.S.A. North America
1-613-926-5536 (off)
1-613-293-3707 (cell)

Asia, Australia, Europe, New Zealand, UK, UAE, Scandinavian Countries, South America, Central America and elsewhere around the world
00-1-613-926-5536 (off)
00-1-613-293-3707 (cell)