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Showing posts with label Dog Health Dog Nutrition. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Dog Health Dog Nutrition. Show all posts

Sunday, 1 December 2013

Omega-3, Omega-6 Fatty Acids for Dogs, Cats - A Complete Guide

My Sweet Boxer x Pit Bull 'Robbie'

 In This Article...
  1. The Importance of Providing a Balanced Intake
  2. Health Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids
  3. Health Benefits of Omega-6 Fatty Acids
  4. Selecting a Good Product
  5. Good Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids 
  6. Guideline for Typical Daily Dosage of Omega-3
  7. Good Sources of Omega-6 Fatty Acids
  8. Guideline for Typical Daily Dosage of Omega-6
  9. Omega-6 Fatty Acids To Be Avoided - Not Safe!
  10. Cautions
  11. Drug Interactions 


Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids are very important for the overall health of a dog and cat. Conversely a lack of good-source omega fatty acids can create many health issues, from allergies to cancer, fur and skin problems, heart disease and a host of other problems as you will see further below. 


Insufficient daily intake of Omega-3 fatty acids can contribute to or cause behaviourial problems such as stress, anxiety, depression and aggression.


1.0 The Importance of Providing a
       Balanced Intake of Omega-3 to 6

1.1 The Impact of a Balanced Intake
The intake of Omega-3 and Omega-6 must be balanced correctly. Failure to do so can result in health problems. An out-of-balance ratio can disrupt the balance of pro and anti-inflammatory agents in the body leading to chronic inflammation.
  • Inflammation is a trigger for many inflammatory diseases such as: 
    • Allergies;
    • Arthritis;
    • Cancer;
    • Diabetes;
    • etc.
As the body does not store Omega-3, daily intake of sufficient Omega-3 is essential for overall health and well being.
  
1.2 Correct Ratio Of Omega -3 to Omega-6 Fatty Acids
To strike the right balance - your dog's overall dietary intake (from food, supplements) should be in the range of 5:1 - meaning 5 parts Omega-6, to 1 part omega-3.
The actual ratio of supplementation of Omega 3 and 5 fatty acids will depend on what type of diet your dog is on - the reason for this variance is based on quality of diet.
      • Highly Processed Food Diets
        • Dry processed food (kibble) and many wet (canned) foods are too high in poor quality Omega-6 fatty acids, and low in quality Omega-3 fatty acids.
        • Grain-in processed food (dry or canned)results in an escalation of poorly balanced Omega 6:3 intake - you can read more about that here
        • And making matters worse:
          • Many treats - cookies, chews, etc., include very poor source Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, may contain grains and other inflammatory agents which adversely impact your dog's, cat's overall daily omega 6:3 intake.
        • Supplementation of fatty-acids for the above diets will need to bring the overall diet closer to the normal 5:1 intake - to do this you will need to add a good quality Omega-6, and several good source Omega-3, your actual supplementation ratio may be 1:2, resulting in supplementation of i.e. organic coconut oil + wild fish oil + hemp seed hearts or hemp seed oil + organic kefir, or yogurt.
        • If you are feeding your dog raw dehydrated or raw fresh/frozen in which the meat is sourced from factory farm-raised (CAFO) animals additional supplementation with a good quality Omega-3 is recommended.
        • If you are feeding pasture-raised, grass fed, or organic raw - incorporating coconut oil and a good-source omega-3 oil provides added benefit to your dog's, cat's overall diet.
There are three (3) omega three fatty acids that your dog or cat must take-in on daily basis: 
  • Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA);
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and; 
  • Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Good quality Omega-3 has all three of these important acids.



2.0 Health Benefits - Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Yes my boy is smiling - Dogs do smile, you can read about that here

2.1 Omega-3 Fatty Acids Help Avoid, Control, Treat,
      Remedy...

  • Arthritis
  • Asthma
  • Atopy
  • Support optimum brain function
  • Bone health
  • Digestive disease
  • Eosinophilic granuloma complex
  • Excessive blood clotting 
  • Flea allergies
  • Hair/fur problems
  • Helps prevent cancer growth
  • Heart disease
  • Learning difficulties
  • Lowers the amount of lipids (i.e. cholesterol, triglycerides) circulating in the bloodstream
  • Immune-mediated skin disease
  • Inflammation throughout the body
  • Inhibits thickening of the arteries 
  • Kidney disease
  • Reduces risk of obesity
  • Seborrhea
  • Metabolism regulation
  • Military dermatitis
  • Maintains fluidity of cell membranes 
2.2 Omega-3 Fatty Acids - An Effective, Natural and Safe Alternative to Steroids and NSAIDs...

Omega-3 Fatty Acids are one of the many healthy, natural nutraceuticals that can be used in combination with anti-inflammatory herbs as an effective and safe alternative to steroidal (i.e. Prednisone) and non-steroidal (NSAIDs such as Metacam) that have very serious health risks. You can read more about natural anti-inflammatories here.


Robbie with Sarah my GSD x Husky


3.0 Health Benefits of Omega-6 Fatty
      Acids

Omega-6 Fatty Acids Help...
  • Build cell membranes and support cell health
  • Dry coat
  • Mycoplasma
  • Regulate Blood Clotting
  • Seborrhea


Not All Sources of Omega Fatty Acids Are Equal...
It is also important to understand that although Omega 3 and 6 can be found in many food stuffs not all sources of these fats offer quality or safe nutrition. 


4.0 Selecting a Good Product

4.1 Decide On Your Approach
How you choose to supplement depends on your life-style, personal priorities etc...
  • Pre-blended Supplement 'all-in-one' liquid or soft-gel
    • If your priority is time-efficiency over quality than your best bet is a pre-prepared, pre-blended supplement that provides (or claims to provide) a full spectrum of omega fatty acids (3-6-9);
      •  This may save you time but you may end-up sacrificing convenience for quality if you do not choose the product wisely;
      • If you choose the pre-blended product  you will also need to decide if you are going to use a liquid supplement or a soft gel supplement. 
The photo below shows a few examples of  typical pre-blended 3-6-9 made for pets Omega fatty acid products...

Various examples of pre-blended, made for dogs and cats Omega 3-6-9 Supplements

A few Examples of Organic Human Food-grade, safe for Dogs and Cats Omega 3-6-9 Supplements
  • Single Source Whole Food Products:
    • You may instead prefer to use single source products that you add yourself to your companion animal's food;
      • This choice can provide you with more flexibility as to the quality of products as you can select the type and quality of the omega-3 and 6 you use;
      • For example you may decide to use Norwegian Krill Oil for omega-3 and organic virgin Coconut oil for Omega-6.
 
Made for Pets and Some Made for Humans Single Food Source Omega-3 Fatty Acid Oils



4.2 What's My Preferred Approach?
  
I prefer using good quality human food-grade whole food products such as organic, unrefined, cold pressed coconut oil, hemp oil, olive oil, flax seeds and a piece of real fatty fish added to my dog's and cat's meal once a day.



4.3 Read The Product Label for Quality Assurance
  
Next it is so important to read product ingredient lists - and here is why...
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    • If the label says 'fish oil' and does not disclose the source of the fish then you are likely looking at a product that is derived from factory farmed fish;
    • What is wrong with that? well...
      • Factory farm fish are raised in confined and often man-made pools;
        • When many living organisms are forced to live in unnatural and confined conditions the environment that they live in becomes a breeding ground for disease and parasites;
      • Factory farm fish are:
        • Fed food pellets that are comprised of non-organic and often species inappropriate food;
        • Are given antibiotics, may be given growth hormones, chemcial-based pesticides and fungicides to control parasites and fungus;
      • All of these substances are ingested by your dog or cat when they consume the oil;
        • Resulting in: an increase of toxic loading, hormone disrupting build-up, anti-biotic resistance building - all health threatening conditions;
      • So while you may have the good intention of improving your dog's or cat's health with the supplement you may actually be furthering the development of health issues.
    • To avoid this pitfall choose a product that is labeled specifically and clearly with no ambiguity, i.e.
      • The ingredient list states that the source of the Omega-3 fatty acids are:
        • Norwegian Krill oil or Wild Alaskan Salmon Oil or;
        • Organic Cold Pressed Flax Seed (Linseed) oil, Organic Hemp Seed Oil, etc.
        • And remember that you are looking for a product that contain the full spectrum of Omega-3 fatty acids...
          • ALA -  Alpha-linolenic acid  
          • EPA - Eicosapentaenoic acid  
          • DHA - Docosahexaenoic acid
And one more important note about fish oil...
  • Avoid 'Fankenfish' - Nickname for GMO Salmon
    • GMO salmon has just been approved in Canada - shame on Canada (just so you know I am Canadian and I am appalled at the decision to allow another GMO product into the Canadian food chain);
    • DO NOT use any product that is derived from GMO fish - the long-term effects of ingesting an animal-based Genetically Engineered (GE) product IS NOT known;
    • What is evident to me is that such a product will have similar adverse health risks as GMO corn and GMO soy;
    • If you are not familiar with the multitude of serious health risks posed by:
  • Plant-Based Omega-6 GMO Oils v.s Quality Plant Oils
    • If the product includes poor source Omega-6 oil from GMO plant crops such as: soy, canola, cottonseed, safflower you are once again introducing an ingredient that is very high in pesticide residue, fungicides, genetically modified properties - all of which increase you dog's or cat's toxic load, increase the chance of hormone and endocrine disruption, renal issues, bladder and other cancers, etc.
    • To avoid this pitfall choose a product that is labeled specifically and clearly with no ambiguity, i.e.
    • The ingredient list states that the source of the oil is:
    • Omega-3 from Norwegian Krill oil or Wild Alsaskan Salmon Oil or Organic Cold Pressed Flax Seed (Linseed) oil;
    • Omega-6 from organic coconut oil, organic sunflower oil, virgin olive oil;
    • This way you know that you are getting a quality product that is as free of toxins as possible.
  • Avoid Products that Contain Fillers and Other Unnecessary Unhealthy Ingredients
    • Look for products that do not contain fillers, soy or wheat-based derivitives, food colouring, artificial flavoring, sweeteners, etc.
    • If you are going to use a soft-gel look for products that do not contain chemical-based slipping agents.
4.4 If You Choose an All-in-One Product Check Ratio
  
Read the label - if the product is not conforming to the ratio as described  in section 1.0 of this article then don't buy the product.

4.5 Decide on Human Grade or 'Made for Pets'
You can use a quality human-grade supplement or a product specifically made for dogs and cats.
  • The dog and cat supplements are not specifically formulated to be better for your dog or cat than a good human grade product;
  • The balance required for human, canine and feline intake of Omega 3 to 6 fatty acids are the same for all three species;
  • Products made specifically for the dog and cat food industry tend to be over-priced simply because the product is targeted to retail to a 'specialty' market.
4.6 Introduce Oils Gradually to the Diet

Some dogs and cats are allergic to or have a sensitivity to fish oil. Fish oil may cause diarrhea in some dogs and cats.

If your dog or cat has never had a fish supplement (liquid oil or gel) before introduce fish oil to the diet starting with 1/4  of the recommended daily dosage and over he space of a several weeks incrementaly increase the dosage until you reach the standard daily dose.

4.7 Allergies - Food and Environmental

If your dog or cat is allergic to shellfish do not give him/her krill oil.

If your dog or cat is allergic to fish then choose flax seed oil as the source of Omega-3 fatty acids. 

If your dog or cat has an environmental allergy to the Linum family of plants do not use flax or flax seed (also known as linseed) oil.

If your dog or cat has an environmental allergy to the Cannabaceae family of plants do not use hemp seed or hemp seed oil. 

The same is true for any other food or environmental allergy - check ingredients against allergens and substitute to suit.


5.0 Good Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids
        ALA -  Alpha-linolenic acid 
        EPA - Eicosapentaenoic acid
        DHA - Docosahexaenoic acid
  • Atlantic Mackerel 
  • Anchovy
  • Bluefin Tuna 
  • Beans/legumes
  • Chia Seeds (whole or ground), Chia Seed Oil
  • Cod Liver Oil
    • If you are going to use be careful pay special attention to the product that you purchase...
      • Many brands of cod liver oil are very high in vitamin A and relatively low in vitamin D;
      • This lack of balance between A and D has the potential to cause vitamin A toxicity;
      • For this reason it is important to choose a cod liver oil that has a considerably lower ratio of vitamin A to vitamin D.
  • Dairy Products from pasture fed cows, goats and sheep
  • Eggs from organic free-range chickens
  • Flax Seeds (ground), or Cold-Pressed Organic Flax Oil (also called Linseed)
    • Unrefrigerated, non-organic flax oil does not have the same healthful properties of cold-pressed organic refrigerated flax oil; 
  • Green Leafy Vegetables
  • Norwegian or Arctic Krill oil
  • Pacific or Atlantic Herring
  • Wild Alaskan Salmon, or Wild Alaskan salmon oil
  • Sardines
  • Sprat
  • Menhaden fish
  • Meat from organic pasture fed animals
Norwegian or Arctic Krill oil is said to be the best, cleanest, most complete and bioavailable supplemental source of Omega-3 fatty acids. If you are going to use Salmon oil - be sure to buy only wild salmon oil or Atlantic salmon oil. Farmed salmon and other farmed fish is high in toxins, antibiotics etc. as noted in section 4.0 above. 

6.0 Guideline for Typical Daily Dosage -
      Omega-3



If you are using a pre-prepared blended product (i.e. includes Omega 3-6-9 fatty acids) follow the manufacturers dosing instructions. If you are using a single whole food product - i.e. Krill oil you can follow the dosage provided below or the manufactures instructions.
6.1 Norwegian or Arctic Krill Oil, Wild Alaskan Salmon Oil or Norwegian Cod Liver Oil
Daily Dosage for Dogs and Cats

  • X-Small Dogs and Cats 
    • 1 -14 lbs – 250mg
  • Small Dogs and Cats
    • 15-29 lbs – 500mg
  • Medium Dogs 
    • 30-49 lbs – 1000mg
  • Large Dogs
    •  50 -79 lbs – 1500mg
  • X-Large Dogs
    •  80 lbs and up – 2000mg 

Chia, Flax Seed Oil 
  • 1 tsp per every 11 lbs of body weight
  • (1 U.S. tsp  is equivalent to 4.9 ml)



7.0 Good Sources of Omega-6 Fatty Acids
        LA - Linoleic acid;
        GL - Gamma-linoenic acid, and;
        AA - Arachidonic acid
  • Animal (mammalian) Meats
  • Coconut Oil (see below)
    • While virgin coconut oil is 90% saturated fat, when added to a dog’s diet in small quantities, on a daily basis virgin coconut oil has many beneficial qualities. It is also very affective as a topically applied treatment on cuts, wounds and for ailments of the skin. To learn about the extensive benefits of adding coconut oil to your dog’s daily diet click here.
  • Chia Seeds (ground or whole) or Chia Seed Oil
  • Hemp Oil
  • Olive Oil 
  • Pumpkin Seeds
  • Sesame Oil 
  • Sunflower Seed Oil

8.0 Guideline for Typical Daily Dosage Omega-6

8.1 Hemp, Sesame, Sunflower, Pumpkin, Olive Oil
  • 1 tsp per every 11 lbs of body weight;
  • (1 U.S. tsp  is equivalent to 4.9 ml)
8.2 Coconut Oil
  • 1/4 tsp per every 10 lbs of body weight twice daily;
  • 1/2 tsp per every 10 lbs of body weight once daily.
    • Coconut oil is a favorite of mine as it has a multitude of health benefits that you can read about here. 

9.0 Oils That Are Not Recommended  

Do not give your dog or cat non-organic:
Canola Oil, Cottonseed Oil, Safflower Oil, Soy Oil

Canola oil, soy products, soy oil, safflower oil, cotton seed oil are grown from Round-up Ready Genetically Modified (GM) seed crops (i.e. in North America). These oils are all very high in pesticide residue...
 
Canola and soybeans in the USA and Canada are almost all grown from Genetically Modified (GM) seeds - the long term affect of ingesting GM food is not known. Further to this, large factory farms use a method to process soy that leaves it very high in photoestrogens. Photoestrogens have been proven to interfere with reproduction and thyroid function. Factory farming processing methods for soy also result in a product that is very high in phytates. Phytates prevent mineral absorption as well as substances that prevent the normal function of enzymes required to digest protein. And one last thumbs down for large factory farm produced soy - it has one of the highest concentrations of pesticides found in North American crops. Traditional methods of processing soy by fermentation (as employed in Japan and China) greatly reduces photoestrogens, and phytates, thus making consumption of the resulting soy, safe and nutritional.

10.0 Cautions
  • Allergies;
    •  If your dog or cat is allergic to shellfish do not give him/her krill oil. 
    • If your dog or cat is allergic to fish then choose flax seed oil as the source of Omega-3 fatty acids
    • If your dog or cat has an environmental allergy to the Linum family of plants do not use flax or flax seed (also known as linseed) oil.  
    • If your dog or cat has an environmental allergy to the Cannabaceae family of plants do not use hemp seed or hemp seed oil. 
    •  The same is true for any other food or environmental allergy - check ingredients against allergens and substitute to suit.
  • Stop giving your dog or cat Omega-3 Fatty Acid supplements 10 days prior to scheduled surgery;
  • Wait 10 days after surgery and/or after stitches/sutures are removed before resuming supplementation;
  • Allergic reactions to shellfish for dogs and cats is rare but possible;
    •  If you think your dog or cat is allergic to shellfish do not give him/her krill oil.
11.0 Drug Interactions

If your dog or cat is on the following drugs consult your veterinarian before supplementing with Omega-3 Fatty Acids:
  • Blood thinners;
  • Beta blockers;
  • Diuretics.

Additional Assistance - Holistic Health and Wellness Service
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Saturday, 18 February 2012

How to Choose a Good Quality Dry Food (Kibble) for Dogs, Cats

In this article:
  1. General Issues and Your Dog's, Cat's Health
  2. Specific ingredients to Avoid - What, Why and How to Select a Better Quality Product
  3. How To Safely Transition Your Dog or Cat to Better Food 
  4. A Better Alternative to Dry and Wet Processed Commercial Food
  5. To Learn more
  6. Help Feed a Shelter Dog or Cat for Free

1.0 General Issues and Your Dog's, Cat's Health

I have to start out by saying that 'good dog or cat kibble' is a relative term. The point of this article is to assist you in choosing the best of what is available in dog and cat kibble, but...
  • I have to be 100% honest with you, I have yet to find a dog or cat kibble that is truly: 
    • Nutritionally complete;
    • Truly species appropriate; 
    • Truly free-of toxins and carcinogens. 
  • In addition it is important to note that no matter what dog kibble you purchase, in order to ensure your dog's or cat's overall health you will have to supplement his/her diet with other items such as:
    • Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and; 
    • Probiotics;
    • You will see why further below.  
    • But yes, there is a vast difference between the majority of dry dog food (dog kibble) and the truly better dry dog foods.
The number of obese dogs and cats has increased in recent years. As well, so many dogs and cats are getting cancer and other diseases. 

The proof is in the numbers;  
  • Statistics recorded by veterinary organizations from the 1950's up to present day are very telling;
  • The life-span of a companion dog in North America is now half of what it was in the 1950's;   
  •  In the 1950's the average life-span of a golden retriever was 15 to 16 years, today the average is in the range of 8 to12 years; 
  • In 2005, 50% of older dogs dies from cancer, and the number is on the rise.
 There are three main reasons for this downturn in the health of dogs and cats;
  • Inappropriate diet (the wrong type of food and food that contains toxins and carcinogens);
  • Lack of exercise,and; 
  • Environmental contaminants. 
Your dog’s and cat's best defense against cancer and other diseases is a strong immune system:
  • Diet plays a big role in a dog’s and cat's ability to maintain a healthy immune system. 
  • If you are feeding commercial dry or wet food (kibble), knowing how to choose a quality product is essential for your dog’s and cat's physical and mental health and well being;
  • And please don't make the mistake of assuming that the price of a  product is reflective of that products quality and safety - it is not. 
  • Of the many thousands of types dry and wet dog and cat foods and treats available there are very few that I recommend to my clients. 


2.0 Specific Ingredients to Avoid - What, Why and How
      To Choose a Better Product


Many commercial dog and cat kibbles are comprised of ingredients that are seriously bad for our companion animals. A kibble that provides poor nutritional value, contains cancer causing and otherwise toxic ingredients provides little hope of attaining and maintaining day-to-day energy and health. In addition toxins will build-up in a dog’s body overtime. This puts great strain on the organs - such as the liver and will eventually cause organ damage and failure. Poor quality nutrition can also lead to either being underweight or overweight / obese - either of which can also trigger the onset of disease. 

Just because a product is for sale in a pet supply store or on-line through a pet supply dealer don’t ever assume that the product is actually good for your dog or cat. Also, just because the manufacture labels the food as ‘natural’ or ‘holistic’, does not mean that the product is made up of good ingredients. 

'Natural' or 'holistic' are not regulated terms in the pet food industry - the product may simply mean the ingredients were derived from a plant or animal. In North America 'USDA  Certified Organic' is the only term that can actually be taken as a gurantee that the food does not contain:
  • Carcinogenic Fumigants;
  • Genetically Modified (GM) Ingredients, Genetically Engineered (GE) Ingredients;
  • Chemical Solvents;
  • Toxic Pesticides.
In addition, although the product may contain 1) fruit and vegetables, 2) probiotics...
1) The fruit and vegetables used:
  • May have been rotting - not fit for human consumption so they were used for pet food (there is no law currently in place that prevents a company from saying that the ingredients they are using in their kibble is first quality - they do not have to prove that this statement is true);
  • May be full of pesticides and herbicides.
2) The  'probiotics'  (i.e. Lb. acidophilus) used are rendered useless:
  • By the time the kibble is fully processed and ready the benefits that would normally be derived from fruit, vegetables and probiotics have been decimated by the processing process. 
To be effective, probiotics must be live. The beneficial micro-organisms and probiotics required by the GI tract are susceptible to heat damage. Most commercially made dry pet food is sterilised or pasteurized - canned food is prepared using dry heat. The only way in which the manufacturers can add probiotics to these foods is by coating the products with a liquid or powder after processing is complete. This presents two fundamental problems: the coating is inconsistent, and preservation of the probiotic is not possible with current technologies.

While I believe that fresh whole foods have much to offer your dog in the way of diverse nutrition to support overall health, boost the immune system, promote good oral health etc., once these foods have been commercially and highly processed overall value can be completely minimized.

Unknowingly you may be paying a manufacturer to seriously compromise the health and shorten the life of your dog and cat. On the other hand you may be feeding your dog and cat a very good  product. Unless you know a little more detail about how to discern true quality in a kibble product it is very difficult to identify good from bad. The same principles discussed in this article are also applicable to dog treats. I don't mince my words here becasue your dog's and cat's health and life depend upon someone speaking the truth.

Before we get into the detailed facts regarding what makes a food a good product or bad product , I just want to briefly address the issue of cost to the consumer - you!

Let’s Define ‘Quality’ In Broad Terms

In broad terms what is meant by ‘quality’ as pertains to this discussion? Well…

Just because the ingredients in a dog and cat food are said to be inspected by authorities having jurisdiction, i.e. CFIA (for Canada) or USDA (for USA) it is no reassurance that the product is truly a safe and nutritional food product for your dog. CFIA and the USDA allow great leeway in the inclusion of poor quality and toxic ingredients in pet foods.
    Also very important to note  -  just because a dog or cat food product  is AAFCO (Association of American Feed Control Officials)approved, does not mean that the food is a good or even safe to consume product. 
    • Although AAFCO promotes themselves as a 'governing' body of the pet food industry - they are self-proclaimed. 
    • While AAFCO does include some US state and federal representatives, AAFCO it is NOT a federal or state government organization. 
    • AAFCO is a partisan organization that includes people directly involved in the pet food manufacturing industry. 
    • AAFCO's true reason for existing is not to support the health of your dog, it exists to promote the pet food industry in its drive to produce the biggest possible margin of profit.  
    • AAFCO is directly responsible for the unclear labeling on pet food products including dry and wet dog food and treats;
    • AAFCO allows toxins and carcinogens into the food that they 'approve';
    • AAFCO is responsible for the confusion around poor vs. good quality.

    In my opinion a good 'Quality' dog or cat food:
    • Does NOT contain any non-species appropriate food stuffs;
    • Does not contain toxins and carcinogens;
    • Derives its protein, fat and carbs from truly good quality food stuffs;
    More on that further below...

    Does a Good Quality Kibble Really Cost you More than Poor Quality Kibble?

    I have seen many pet supply stores and large retailers selling a poor quality kibble for the same or more than they are selling a better quality kibble. And yes, better and really good quality kibbles may be more expensive to purchase at the cash register (than inexpensive kibbles) but the actual cost of these products is not necessarily higher once you get home and open that bag of food. 

    What do I mean by this statement? Well, a dog kibble that is comprised of poor quality ingredients offers less digestible high quality nutrition so you have to feed your dog  or cat considerably more kibble to at least part way met his/her nutritional needs than you would if the kibble was comprised of quality ingredients. You will go through a 40lb bag of poor quality kibble much faster than you will go through a 30lb bag of good quality kibble.

    Now Let’s Look at Good vs. Bad in Detail

    What we really want to make sure of is that we don’t purchase product a) comprised of  poor quality nutrition, b) minimize the carcinogens and other toxic components.

    Synthetic Additives, Preservatives & Colouring Agents
    Many off-the-shelf dog foods and treats contain synthetic additives, preservatives and colouring - many are proven carcinogens. These substances are added to the kibble to help stabilize the product and enhance its appearance. The most common of these preservatives are BHA, BHT, EQ (ethoxyquin), propyl gallate. You can read more about preservatives to avoid here. Then there are artificial colouring agents and additives such as glycerol monostearate, phosphoric acid and propylene glycol (this is used in antifreeze - antifreeze kills dogs!). Read product labels - if the product you are looking at contains these ingredients put it back on the shelf! Instead look for products that contain ‘natural preservatives’ and antioxidants such as Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and mixed tocopherols.
     
    Minimize the Poor Nutrition and the ‘Unknown’ in Your Dog’s Diet
    Once again, many off-the-shelf dog and cat foods contain food stuffs from unknown sources. These food stuffs are cheap source fillers that provide poor quality nutrition and can be full of unknown chemicals, steroids and antibiotics, petroleum derivatives, aflatoxins, etc. 

    Grains and Poor Quality Legumes
    In the 1950's the percentage of grain products used in kibble increased dramatically and has since continued to reign as the most common ingredient in commercially manufactured dog kibble. Many of these grain products are added primarily as fillers. 

    Two of the most commonly used grains /legumes are corn and soy - both GMO in North America and both seriously damaging to your dog's and cat's health.

    These products are included:
    • For the benefit of the manufacture’s cost margin and profit, not for the benefit of your dog or cat;
    • To help bind the ingredients in kibble together.
    Not only are grains not a species appropriate food for a dog or cat, the digestibility and nutrition available from many grain products is negligible. Your dog and cat ends up consuming a lot of filler with very little nutrient value. This is very deceptive as you think you are feeding your dog and cat enough and his stools are sizable (due to the high filler indigestible fibre content), but his nutrient intake is low. Here is a list of some of these low nutrient, cheap fillers…brewers rice, cereal food fines (leftovers from human grade cereal production -  junk), feeding oat meal, grain fermentation soluble, maltodextrins, fermentation solubles, potato product (leftovers from human grade potato product production - nutritional value, nil), soy flour, corn bran, corn cellulose, oat hulls, peanut hulls, rice hulls, soybean and wheat mill run (wheat middlings), corn germ meal, corn gluten meal, soybean meal (these last three ingredients are often included as a source of protein - very poor quality protein!).

    While some of these fillers are derived from the leftovers of human food processing - as the product at the end of the line, they can be full of chemicals. They can also be from non-human grade sources. If the grains/grain derivatives are not from human grade sources they will contain aflatoxins. Aflatoxins cause liver cancer. Aflatoxins grow mainly on grains but they also grow on legumes - like peanuts, walnuts and pecans. This is one reason why you will hear some people say do not give your dogs nuts! Actually it is fine to give your dog peanuts or peanut butter - they are a good source of nutrition - just make sure you are giving them human grade. 

    Aflatoxins can also be found in cottonseed oil, fish meal and peanut oil. Human grade foods are monitored closely for aflatoxins, if they are present the raw product (such as grain) is not allowed to be sold as human grade. There are no such regulations for animal grade foods so aflatoxins so most commercial grade dog, cat and bird food will have some aflatoxins...the body can usually detoxify small amounts. 

    Rye is another grain that can cause problems for your dog. Rye contains polysaccharides (classified as a type of carbohydrate and biological polymer, starch and cellulose). The problem is not that rye contains this substance but the fact that it contains a high content of polysaccharides (i.e. in comparison with other grains such as wheat and corn). Why is that bad? Well polysaccharides interfere with the body's ability to utilize nutrients. Additionally, rye contains alkylresorcinol in high levels - this substance is a known to irritate intestinal and mucous membranes and can also retard growth.
     
    Another thing to consider…
    • Corn and soybeans in the USA and Canada are almost all grown from Genetically Modified (GM) seeds - the long term affect of ingesting GM food is not known. 
    • Further to this, large factory farms use a method to process soy that leaves it very high in photoestrogens. 
      • Photoestrogens have been proven to interfere with reproduction and thyroid function. Factory farming processing methods for soy also result in a product that is very high in phytates. 
      • Phytates prevent mineral absorption as well as substances that prevent the normal function of enzymes required to digest protein.  
      • Traditional methods of processing soy by fermentation (as employed in Japan and China) greatly reduces photoestrogens, and phytates, thus making consumption of the resulting soy, safe and nutritional. 
    • And one last thumbs down for large factory farm produced soy - it has one of the highest concentrations of pesticides found in North American crops. 
      • For example, large factory farm soybean crops receive heavy applications of the potent herbicide glyphosate -  a powerful toxin and carcinogen. 
      • The vast majority of soy derivatives (i.e. soybean oil, soy meal, soy milk, tofu and everything in-between) found in both feedstock and human food is contaminated with high amounts of glyphosate. 
    Look for off-the-shelf dog food that specifies that the ingredients are from first grade or human grade sources.  

    Grains are not part of a dog's natural diet! This includes whole corn kernels and corn derivatives (i.e. corn bran, corn cellulose, corn meal are just fillers offering little nutritional value if any). While rice offer better nutritional digestibility than many of the grain products noted above…rice is also not species appropriate food. Sweet potatoes, legumes such as chickpeas and lentils and squash are a better and nutrient dense source of carbohydrates. 

    Fiber
    High quality fiber such as the fiber from fresh fruits and vegetables is very different from the low quality fiber found in many off-the-shelf dog food products. Again, low grade fiber is added as cheap filler for the benefit of the manufacture’s cost margin and profit, not for the benefit of your dog. Cellulose derived from dried, processed wood is the most common form of cellulose (hard to believe but true!), corn bran (GM product), oat hulls, peanut hulls, rice hulls, soybean middlings (GM product) and wheat middlings. These ingredients may also contain aflatoxins. If the product has a lot of these ingredients put it back on the shelf. Veterinarian prescribed dog and cat food is notorious for containing these fillers. A perfect example of when cost is NOT a reflection of quality, and in-fact you can be paying a lot of money to seriously endanger the health of your dog. Another example of just how badly many prescription foods can be - you can take a look at section 7.0 of this article - what you see will shock you.

    Protein
    Protein should be the first ingredient in your dogs kibble…but there are issues to be aware of with protein sources too. Protein may come from poultry (chicken, duck, etc.), cattle, swine, lamb…the problem is often what goes into the kibble is not the quality cuts of meat - lean muscle tissue. Instead the animal parts that are added to a lot of kibble is the by-products - the bones, blood, intestines, ligaments, and many other parts not sold for human consumption. Here is a list of protein sources that you should avoid - again, if these are listed in the product, put it back on the shelf…beef and bone meal, blood meal, chicken by-product meal, corn distillers dried grains with solubles, corn germ meal, corn gluten meal, fish meal, liver meal, meat and bone meal, meat meal, pork and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, poultry meal and soybean meal. As these ingredients are loosely regulated they may be from 4-D animals (dead, diseased, disabled, or dying prior to slaughter), road-kill, animals euthanized at ‘shelters’ (euthanization includes the use of harmful chemicals, also the animals may have been diseased), the ingredients may also include pus, cancerous tissue, decomposing tissue, etc.

    Fish Meal
    If the kibble you are feeding your dog or cat contains fish meal - I would advise you to do some serious research to make sure that the manufacturer states that their products ARE ethoxyquin-free.  You will not see ethoxyquin listed under ingredients on dog and cat food labels as ethoxyquin is an ingredient in an ingredient - meaning it is added to fish meal and the fish meal is then added to the food. You will have to either call the manufacture or do a search on their website or on the internet to see if you can find a disclaimer where the manufacturer gurantees that their product is ethoxyquin-free.

    Many pet food manufacturers purchase their fish meal from processing plants that put ethoxyquin into the fish meal. Ethoxyquin - is a pesticide that is also used in animal feed to stop fats from going rancid. Ethoxyquin is a very dangerous substance - it IS a known carcinogen, allergen and more. Due to its extreme health hazard, ethoxyquin has been banned from use in human food. To understand more about this dangerous substance and why you do NOT want it in your dog's or cat's food you can read more here.

    The Diamond Pet Foods is a perfect example of a manufacturer that continues to use fish meal with ethoxyquin. Some of the products manufactured by Diamond Pet Foods are - Taste of the Wild, Costco's Kirkland Lake Dog and Cat food, Diamond, Diamond Naturals. Diamond has also had a lot of pet food product recalls.

    Fats
    Animal and poultry fat is added to a lot of kibble. Again these are the rancid fats and oil by products that are not sold for human consumption. Waste from restaurants and food manufacturing is saved and then refined by rendering companies, who then turn around and sell it to pet food manufactures. The manufactures add them to their poor quality kibble to give it taste and to help the ingredients bind together. The following are the ingredients you should avoid…animal fat, beef tallow, lard, poultry fat, vegetable oil. Again the source of these fats can also be from 4-D animals and the vegetable oil is likely to be poor quality and/or GM.

    Sweeteners
    Sweeteners are not required in your dog’s or cat's diet! In fact they are not good for your dog or cat. They are added to many pet foods to make the food more attractive - think about it, some of these products have a lot of fillers - no taste…so the sweeteners give the food some taste. If the product you are going to buy has these ingredients you know want to do - re-shelve it: cane molasses, corn syrup, fructose, sorbitol, sugar, di-alpha tocopherol acetate. Remember daily intake of sweeteners is just as bad for dogs as it is for humans. Sugar suppresses the immune system - making it easier for cancer to take hold. Sweeteners also cause allergies, arthritis, cataracts, hypoglycaemia, heart ailments, nervous energy, tooth decay, obesity and so on. The more your dog’s and cat's health is compromised the harder it is for your dog’s and cat's body to fight diseases including cancer, to fight off insects and parasites and so on.  If you would like to see a more comprehensive list of ingredients to avoid you can click here.

    Sugar, syrup and molasses are all health threats to your companion animal - these sugars are a double health threat...
    • Due to their inflammatory properties;
    • Typically the sweeteners used in dog and cat food are not quality products;
      • Sugar beets in North America are a genetically modified (GMO) genetically engineered food;
      • So, much like the Round-up Ready Corn and soy, GMO sugar beets are high in pesticide residue and may cause acquired cell mutation in dogs and cats.
      • Although sugar from sugar cane is not GMO, it is an inflammatory;
      • Sugar from corn is a GMO, GE product, high in pesticide residue, and has been proven to cause the growth of tumors;
        • Syrup and molasses are both made from sugar;
      • Raw Unpasturized Honey is the only sweetener that provides health benefits for dogs and cats BUT the beneficial properties of honey are destroyed by pasteurization, by heating and cooking. 
        • If a dog or cat food or treat contains honey - the honey becomes a health threatening sweetener if it was:
          • a pasturized honey;
          • if the food or treat has been heat processed.

    3.0 How to Safely Transition Your Dog, Cat to New Food

    If you are going to switch your dog’s kibble don’t switch his food overnight.
    Add a little of the new food to the old food. Gradually increase the amount of new food and decrease the amount of old food until the old is completely replaced by new. This process should be carried out over several days to several weeks depending on the hardiness of your dog’s and cat's digestive system. Some dogs and cats are very sensitive to changes in their diet while others dogs are not.

    If you have switched your dog’s or cat's food before with no deleterious affects and you know your dog’s system is hardy you can shorten the phasing in of the new food. 

    If you want to see some examples of bad, better and good dry dog food you can read this article.The strictures noted on the article also pertain to cat food.


    4.0 A Better Alternative to Dry and Wet Commercial Food

    You Can Also Make Your Own Dog and Cat Food and Treats
    If you would like to try making healthy, nutritious home-made dog and cat food to either supplement or completely phase-out dog or cat kibble you can try these home made recipes I developed for the health of my dogs and cats...
    Homemade Cooked Food Recipe
    Homemade Chicken or Meat Broth
      
     
    5.0 To Learn More

    To Learn More About Enriching Your Dog's Diet
    You can explore ma wealth of information in my many articles on dog and cat diet, nutrition, health and care here.

    To Learn More About Discerning Good vs. Bad Kibble
    If you would like to look at the subject (of what makes a kibble good or bad) in further depth I recommend that you take a look at the Dog Food Project’s website section on Commercial Dry Foods.

    An Independent Review of 100's of Brands and Types of Kibble
    If you would like to see an extensive listing of Dry Dog Food reviewed by an independent group I you can take a look at the Dog Food Advisor’s website page on Dry Dog Food. I don't really like the site myself as it does not educate people regarding the real issues at hand - what makes a good food for a dog or cat. Why do I say that? The site does not address the most basic of elements that can make a food good or bad - for example:
    • Grain-in foods are not rated as inappropriate for the species canine, feline;
    • The many toxic, carcinogenic, short and long term threats posed by grains are not explained;
    • Yes a dry food may have a high meat-porotein content but if the animal from which that meat was obtained (i.e. chicken, cow, etc) was feed GMO corn, was injected with growth hormones, steroids, antibiotics - your dog or cat is ingesting the hormones, steroids, antibiotics, etc. This is one of the reasons for the explosion of thyroid problems, antibiotic resistance and high rates of cancer in our companion animals.
    • There is no mention of omega insufficiency in these foods or of the poor source of the fats - i.e. from a GMO plant crop;
    • Non-viable ingredients such as probiotics are not addressed - good bacteria) micro-organisms) cannot survive the processing required to create dry dog food.
    • Etc.  


    6.0 Holistic Support

    Additional Assistance - Holistic Health and Wellness Service
    If you require additional support, and guidance - contact me to discuss your requirements. I will determine the appropriate course of action for your situation and I will let you know the applicable fees. I offer consultative services to clients around the world...
    Diet, Nutrition Wellness Services
    • Unbiased Diet, Nutrition, Product Advice - information and payment here >>. 
    • Holistic Diet, Nutrition Wellness Plans - information and payment here >>.
    Dog Obedience Training and Behavior Modification Services
    • In-Person sessions - information and payment here >>.
    • On-Line consultation and sessions - information and payment here >>.
    7.0 Help Feed a Shelter Dog or Cat for Free
    You can do so by clicking on the following links…when you go to these sites and click on the button corporate sponsors donate kibble to homeless pets on your behalf. I click on all three sites every day.



    The Animal Rescue Site