Tuesday, 12 June 2012

Garlic for Dogs - Health Benefits, Preparation, Use, Safe Dosage

In this article...

1. Garlic - Why It Is Good For Dogs...
    1.1 Time to Put Myths and Misnomers to Rest

           - The debate
           - A common substance shared

           - What those that do not know miss out on
2. History of Garlic 
3. Health Benefits of Fresh Garlic 
4. Active Medicinal Ingredients in Garlic
5. Activating The Medicinal Properties of Garlic 
6. Forms of Garlic You Should Not Use 
7. How to Include Garlic In Your Dog's Daily Diet
       - Safe Daily Dosage
8. Cautions
9. Drug Interactions
10. Other Uses for Garlic
         -  Insect and Parasite Replant, Treatment and Preventative
         - Topical Treatment for Ear Infections

1.0 Garlic - Why It Is Good For Dogs...

The photo just above is of me walking some members of my own dog pack. Everyone of my dogs eats fresh garlic with one of their daily meals - they have done so for years. As you can see from the photo above my dogs range in breed, age and obviously size. They are all very healthy and are not on chemical-based insect and parasite preventatives (veterinarian prescribed or off-the- shelf), antibiotics etc. I build their health from the inside out and garlic is one of those herbs that help me to keep them healthy!

My Happy, Healthy Boxer x boy 'Robbie'

You may have heard that garlic is bad for dogs. Well, garlic has been used for many years by the holistic community to support good health in dogs.

1.1 Time to Put Myths and Misnomers To Rest

 The Debate 
The debate about whether garlic is good or bad seems to have arisen from confusion with its close cousin, the onion.  And that question has been furthered by people - professionals and public alike - who do not inform themselves about the actual properties of these foods prior to pronouncing their opinion...

Which means that their pronouncement is an OPINION and an uninformed judgement based on lack of information rather than an evidence-based fact.
A Common Substance Shared 
Both garlic and onion contain thiosulphate, the substance responsible for causing ‘Heinx Factoranemia in dogs and cats. 

The amount of thiosulphate found in garlic is much lower than in onions, in fact the amount in garlic is barely traceable and when garlic is provided in proper daily dosage the thiosulphate is not sufficient to cause harm to dogsand the health benefits garlic offers to dogs is enormous. As cats are much more sensitive to thiosulphate than dogs. cats are, in general more sensitive to biologically foreign substances - another example of this sensitivity can be seen in the use of essential oils. The range of essential oils that are suitable for cats is considerably less than the quantity of safe essential oils for dogs. While garlic is found in some holistic medicine-blends for cats, the amount used is strictly controlled. And while a wise cat may choose to rub up against a patch of wild garlic for its insect repelling properties - I recommend that you do not administer garlic to your cat, unless it is present in minute amounts in a made-for-cat proved-to-be-safe product. Fresh garlic, some people give it to their cats a few times a week - however I do not recommend this for the average cat guardian.

The fear of garlic - as pertains to its use as a healthful herb for dogs, is a new fear propagated by rumor on the internet and not proven by any facts or study. To see an extensive list of foods that dogs should truly not be consuming and/or should be consuming with caution you can read here.
What Those That Don't Know Miss Out On
Garlic is a powerful, natural broad-spectrum antibiotic. Garlic is also an antioxidant, anti-allergen, antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-protozoan, anti-viral and anti-carcinogen. Garlic contains germanium, an anti-cancer agent and an anti-protozoan. Garlic can also be used topically to treat specific ailments - for example ear mite infestation and ear infections.
Garlic also contains sulfur - a natural insect repellent!

When garlic is ingested in reasonable amounts there are no harmful results - only benefits, and no, it won’t make your dog smell like garlic! 

2.0 History of Garlic
Garlic is a member of the allium genus - garlic is considered a vegetable, and a member of the Lily family. Garlic is an ancient food crop - cherished for its vegetable bulb and flower stalk (scape), the garlic plant has been harvested and cultivated by mankind for thousands of years.

There are many types of garlic - cultivated, heirloom and wild, examples can be found here.

The word garlic comes from the Old English word garleac - ‘spear leek’. 

Garlic is divided into two main varieties - hardnecked garlic, and softneck garlic. Hardneck garlic does not store well for long periods of time, but the cloves are easier (than softneck varieties) to peel. Softneck garlic stores very well for longer periods of time, making it the most common type of garlic sold in grocery stores. All information discussed in this article applies to hardnecked and softnecked garlic.

Garlic is also an herbal plant with many health giving properties.  Garlic - when used properly, offers many health benefits to dogs.

Unfortunately, all
other members of the allium family, including - c
hives, leeks, shallots and onions are toxic to dogs.
Abby and Jordie - my German Shepherd x Malamute and my
German Shepherd x  Belgian Shepherd eat garlic on a daily basis
 3.0 Health Benefits of Fresh Garlic
  • Anti-bacterial;
  • Anti-biotic (broad spectrum);
  • Anti-carcinogen, garlic contains germanium - an anti-cancer agent;
    • Garlic helps to prevent a variety of cancers such as: bladder cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer; rectal cancer, stomach cancer.
    • Garlic is also used to treat some forms of cancer such as bladder and prostate cancer.
  • Garlic helps to regulate blood pressure;
  • Heart health support to prevent:
    • Heart disease;
    • Heart attack;
    • Hardening of the arteries;
  • Helps strengthen the body's defenses against allergies;
  • Helps regulate blood sugar levels;
  • High cholesterol reduction;
  • Garlic is high in vitamins, minerals and nutrients:
  • Calcium, Potassium, Zinc;
  • Protein;
  • Vitamin A, B, B2, C;
  • Garlic is an aid to fighting and treating:
    • Asthma;
    • Environmental allergies'
    • Diabetes;
    • Diarrhea; 
    • Fatigue;
    • Liver, heart and kidney disease;
    • Maintenance of healthy liver function;
    • Ear infections and ear mite infestations;
    • Stress.
  • Garlic is a natural:

4.0 Active Medicinal Ingredients in Garlic
Garlic contains multiple sulphur-inclusive compounds. Allinn and another enzyme ‘alliinase’, both present in garlic, but contained in separate cells gain the opportunity to combine and create a new enzyme called ‘allicin’ when garlic is chopped, crushed, minced or chewed. Allicin (an anti-biotic, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, heart healthy enzyme) is the most beneficial of the healthful enzymes in garlic.

5.0 Activating the Medicinal Properties
Use Fresh Garlic and Prepare it As Follows...
  • Chop, crush, mince or press/bruise the fresh garlic, and then;
    • Allow to sit at room temperature for at minimum five (5) minutes and better ten (10) to fifteen (15) minutes;
    • This gives the allinn and alliinase sufficient time to undergo the enzymic reaction that creates allicin - the medicinal ingredient in garlic;
    • Mix the garlic into your dog's food in his/her bowl and its now time for your dog to eat;
    • The medicinal properties remain active for up to one (1) hour after you have activiated them;
    • After one hour has passed the medicinal properties begin to degrade which is why it is improtant to use fresh prepared garlic. 
6.0 Forms of Garlic You Should Not Use

Dry, Dehydrated, Powdered, Mixed Garlic, Supplement
  • Do not add garlic in a mixed form to your dogs diet  - i.e. garlic steak spice 
    • May contain fillers, sugar, salt and herbs or spices, food colouring and other additives that are not safe for dogs to consume;
    • Dehydrated, powdered garlic, or preserved minced garlic intended for culinary use has been degraded from processing and it's medicinal qualities are lost - it's only remaining purpose is to please the human palate - don't give these forms of garlic to your dog as they offer no benefit.
  • Fresh always refrigerated preserved garlic - much like fresh sauerkraut that has been pickled/preserved/fermented in pure water (not in wine and with other additives) and has been kept refrigerated after the initial curing period will have beneficial probiotic properties but may not have the other medicinal qualities offered by fresh garlic.
  • Cooked garlic does not retain the medicinal properties found in fresh garlic.
When I refer to ‘garlic’ I mean garlic in its pure, fresh form.

7.0 How to Include Garlic in Your Dog’s
      Daily Diet

More of my garlic eating dogs...
Add the properly prepared fresh garlic to one of your dog's daily meals. The safe daily dosage is as follows...

Safe Daily Dosage for Dogs
  • 1 clove fresh raw garlic per every:
    • 30 pounds of body weight
    • 13.6 kg of body weight
  • For dogs less than 30 pounds:
    • 20 pound dog - 2/3 of a clove
    • 15 pound dog - 1/2 of a clove
    • 10 pound dog - 1/3 of a clove
    • 5 pound dog - 1/6 of a clove
  • 1 teaspoon (tsp) fresh, raw minced/finely chopped garlic per every:
    •  30 lbs of body weight
    • 13.6 kg of body weight
  • For dogs less than 30 pounds:
    • 20 pound dog - 2/3 of a tsp
    • 15 pound dog - 1/2 of a tsp
    • 10 pound dog - 1/3 of a tsp
    • 5 pound dog - 1/6 of a tsp

If you can afford to do so, buy organic garlic.

8.0 Cautions

  • Pregnant and Lactating Dogs
    • When used in the dosage provided above, garlic is safe for pregnant dogs;
    • The only caution around garlic for pregnant dogs is that if ingested in large quantities it can flavor the milk of lactating females (human and canine).
  • Puppies
    • As a general guideline for puppies...
    • Don't give garlic to puppies that are 6 months of age or younger.
  • Garlic From China
    • Some garlic from China has been found to be contaminated with high levels of arsenic, lead and added sulfites.
  • Dogs May self-select Yes, No
    •  If your dog does not want to eat his/her food once you have added garlic, or if you are delivering garlic to your dog in another way (without food), and your dog does not want the garlic do not force the garlic on your dog. Many dogs do have good instinct / senses to 'know' what he/she needs, and /or if the food, herb, nutraceutical or alternative medicine you are offering is not appropriate for his/her individual situation.
  •  Health and Medical Contradictions
    • If your dog has a health or medical conditions, make sure you check for contradictions - for example...
      • If your dog has IBS or Colitis
        • Garlic is high in insoluble fibre and sulfur compounds - as a general rule it is best  not to give fresh garlic to dogs that have IBS or colitis.

9.0 Drug Interactions
  • If your dog is on conventional drugs make sure you check for drug interactions - the below is an example of some garlic and drug interactions...
    • If your dog is on cyclosporine:
      • Garlic may increase the rate at which cyclosprine is broken down by the body, and;
      • Might decrease the effectiveness of cyclosporine;
      • So, do not give your dog garlic if he/she is on cyclosporin.
  • If your dog is on any medication that is changed by the liver. 
  • If your dog is on a blood thinner:
    • Garlic can slow down blood clotting -  garlic may increase the efficacy of the blood thinner;
    • The dosage of the blood thinner would need to be adjusted for intake of garlic. 

10.0 Some Other Beneficial Uses For

10.1 Parasites and Insects
Garlic is a natural wormer and can also be used in combination with other herbs and nutraceuticals to treat repel and avoid the development of parasite infestations - you can read about that here.

Garlic is a natural insect repellent and can also be used topically in combination with other herbs and nutraceuaticals to treat and repel insects - you can read about that here.

10.2 Ear Infections
Garlic can be used topically in combination with other nutraceuaticals as a topical treatment for ear infections - you can read about that here.

11.0 Holistic Support

Additional Assistance - Holistic Health and Wellness Service
If you require additional support, and guidance - contact me to discuss your requirements. I will determine the appropriate course of action for your situation and I will let you know the applicable fees. I offer consultative services to clients around the world...
Diet, Nutrition Wellness Services
  • Unbiased Diet, Nutrition, Product Advice - information and payment here >>. 
  • Holistic Diet, Nutrition Wellness Plans - information and payment here >>.
Dog Obedience Training and Behavior Modification Services
  • In-Person sessions - information and payment here >>.
  • On-Line consultation and sessions - information and payment here >>.

Sunday, 10 June 2012

Omega-3, Omega-6 Fatty Acids for Dogs, Cats - Health Benefits, Best Sources, Dosage

My Sweet Boxer x Pit Bull 'Robbie'
 In This Article...
  1. The Importance of Providing a Balanced Intake
  2. Health Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids
  3. Health Benefits of Omega-6 Fatty Acids
  4. Selecting a Good Product
  5. Good Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids 
  6. Guideline for Typical Daily Dosage of Omega-3
  7. Good Sources of Omega-6 Fatty Acids
  8. Guideline for Typical Daily Dosage of Omega-6
  9. Omega-6 Fatty Acids To Be Avoided - Not Safe!
  10. Cautions
  11. Drug Interactions 

Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids are very important for the overall health of a dog and cat. Conversely a lack of good-source omega fatty acids can create many health issues, from allergies to cancer, fur and skin problems, heart disease and a host of other problems as you will see further below. 

Insufficient daily intake of Omega-3 fatty acids can contribute to or cause behaviourial problems such as stress, anxiety, depression and aggression.

1.0 The Importance of Providing a
       Balanced Intake of Omega-3 to 6

1.1 The Impact of a Balanced Intake
The intake of Omega-3 and Omega-6 must be balanced correctly. Failure to do so can result in health problems. An out-of-balance ratio can disrupt the balance of pro and anti-inflammatory agents in the body leading to chronic inflammation.
  • Inflammation is a trigger for many inflammatory diseases such as: 
    • Allergies;
    • Arthritis;
    • Cancer;
    • Diabetes;
    • etc.
As the body does not store Omega-3, daily intake of sufficient Omega-3 is essential for overall health and well being.
1.2 Correct Ratio Of Omega -3 to Omega-6 Fatty Acids
  • To strike the right balance - your dog's overall dietary intake (from food, supplements) should be in the range of 5:1 - meaning 5 parts Omega-6, to 1 part omega-3
    • The actual ratio of supplementation of Omega 3 and 5 fatty acids will depend on what type of diet your dog is on - the reason for this variance is based on quality of diet.
      • Highly Processed Food Diets
        • Dry processed food (kibble) and many wet (canned) foods are too high in poor quality Omega-6 fatty acids, and low in quality Omega-3 fatty acids.
        • Grain-in processed food (dry or canned)results in an escalation of poorly balanced Omega 6:3 intake - you can read more about that here
        • And making matters worse:
          • Many treats - cookies, chews, etc., include very poor source Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, may contain grains and other inflammatory agents which adversely impact your dog's, cat's overall daily omega 6:3 intake.
        • Supplementation of fatty-acids for the above diets will need to bring the overall diet closer to the normal 5:1 intake - to do this you will need to add a good quality Omega-6, and several good source Omega-3, your actual supplementation ratio may be 1:2, resulting in supplementation of i.e. organic coconut oil + wild fish oil + hemp seed hearts or hemp seed oil + organic kefir, or yogurt.
        • If you are feeding your dog raw dehydrated or raw fresh/frozen in which the meat is sourced from factory farm-raised (CAFO) animals additional supplementation with a good quality Omega-3 is recommended.
        • If you are feeding pasture-raised, grass fed, or organic raw - incorporating coconut oil and a good-source omega-3 oil provides added benefit to your dog's, cat's overall diet.
There are three (3) omega three fatty acids that your dog or cat must take-in on daily basis: 
  • Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA);
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and; 
  • Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Good quality Omega-3 has all three of these important acids.

2.0 Health Benefits - Omega-3 Fatty Acids

2.1 Omega-3 Fatty Acids Help Avoid, Control, Treat,

  • Arthritis
  • Asthma
  • Atopy
  • Support optimum brain function
  • Bone health
  • Digestive disease
  • Eosinophilic granuloma complex
  • Excessive blood clotting 
  • Flea allergies
  • Hair/fur problems
  • Helps prevent cancer growth
  • Heart disease
  • Learning difficulties
  • Lowers the amount of lipids (i.e. cholesterol, triglycerides) circulating in the bloodstream
  • Immune-mediated skin disease
  • Inflammation throughout the body
  • Inhibits thickening of the arteries 
  • Kidney disease
  • Reduces risk of obesity
  • Seborrhea
  • Metabolism regulation
  • Military dermatitis
  • Maintains fluidity of cell membranes 
Robbie with Sarah my GSD x Husky

3.0 Health Benefits of Omega-6 Fatty

Omega-6 Fatty Acids Help...
  • Build cell membranes and support cell health
  • Dry coat
  • Mycoplasma
  • Regulate Blood Clotting
  • Seborrhea

Not All Sources of Omega Fatty Acids Are Equal...
It is also important to understand that although Omega 3 and 6 can be found in many food stuffs not all sources of these fats offer quality or safe nutrition. 

4.0 Selecting a Good Product

4.1 Decide On Your Approach
How you choose to supplement depends on your life-style, personal priorities etc...
  • Pre-blended Supplement 'all-in-one' liquid or soft-gel
    • If your priority is time-efficiency over quality than your best bet is a pre-prepared, pre-blended supplement that provides (or claims to provide) a full spectrum of omega fatty acids (3-6-9);
      •  This may save you time but you may end-up sacrificing convenience for quality if you do not choose the product wisely;
      • If you choose the pre-blended product  you will also need to decide if you are going to use a liquid supplement or a soft gel supplement. 
The photo below shows a few examples of  typical pre-blended 3-6-9 made for pets Omega fatty acid products...

Various examples of pre-blended, made for dogs and cats Omega 3-6-9 Supplements

A few Examples of Organic Human Food-grade, safe for Dogs and Cats Omega 3-6-9 Supplements

  • Single Source Whole Food Products:
    • You may instead prefer to use single source products that you add yourself to your companion animal's food;
      • This choice can provide you with more flexibility as to the quality of products as you can select the type and quality of the omega-3 and 6 you use;
      • For example you may decide to use Norwegian Krill Oil for omega-3 and organic virgin Coconut oil and extra virgin olive oil for Omega-6;
      • This is the approach that I use for my dogs and cats. 

Made for Pets and Some Made for Humans Single Food Source Omega-3 Fatty Acid Oils

4.2 What's My Preferred Approach?
I prefer using good quality human food-grade whole food products such as whole sardines or good quality organic oils - i.e. coconut oil, hemp oil, olive oil, organic tahini, flax or chia seeds, and wild fatty fish oils with no additives.. My dogs also get avocado flesh (no skin or seed / pit!) in their daily diet - you can read here about the health benefits, and how to introduce avocado to your dog's diet.

4.3 Read The Product Label for Quality Assurance
Next it is so important to read product ingredient lists - and here is why...
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    • If the label says 'fish oil' and does not disclose the source of the fish then you are likely looking at a product that is derived from factory farmed fish;
    • What is wrong with that? well...
      • Factory farm fish are raised in confined and often man-made pools;
        • When many living organisms are forced to live in unnatural and confined conditions the environment that they live in becomes a breeding ground for disease and parasites;
      • Factory farm fish are:
        • Fed food pellets that are comprised of non-organic and often species inappropriate food;
        • Are given antibiotics, may be given growth hormones, chemcial-based pesticides and fungicides to control parasites and fungus;
      • All of these substances are ingested by your dog or cat when they consume the oil;
        • Resulting in: an increase of toxic loading, hormone disrupting build-up, anti-biotic resistance building - all health threatening conditions;
      • So while you may have the good intention of improving your dog's or cat's health with the supplement you may actually be furthering the development of health issues.
    • To avoid this pitfall choose a product that is labeled specifically and clearly with no ambiguity, i.e.
      • The ingredient list states that the source of the Omega-3 fatty acids are:
        • Norwegian Krill oil or Wild Alaskan Salmon Oil or;
        • Organic Cold Pressed Flax Seed (Linseed) oil, Organic Hemp Seed Oil, etc.
        • And remember that you are looking for a product that contain the full spectrum of Omega-3 fatty acids...
          • ALA -  Alpha-linolenic acid  
          • EPA - Eicosapentaenoic acid  
          • DHA - Docosahexaenoic acid
And one more important note about fish oil...
  • Avoid 'Fankenfish' - Nickname for GMO Salmon
    • GMO salmon has just been approved in Canada;
    • DO NOT use any product that is derived from GMO fish - the long-term effects of ingesting an animal-based Genetically Engineered (GE) product IS NOT known;
    • What is evident to me is that such a product will have similar adverse health risks as GMO corn and GMO soy;
    • If you are not familiar with the multitude of serious health risks posed by:
  • Plant-Based Omega-6 GMO Oils v.s Quality Plant Oils
    • If the product includes poor source omega-6 oil from GMO plant crops such as: soy, canola, cottonseed, safflower you are once again introducing an ingredient that is very high in pesticide residue, fungicides, genetically modified properties - all of which increase you dog's or cat's toxic load, increase the chance of hormone and endocrine disruption, renal issues, bladder and other cancers, etc.
    • To avoid this pitfall choose a product that is labeled specifically and clearly with no ambiguity, i.e.
    • The ingredient list states that the source of the oil is:
    • Omega-3 from Norwegian Krill oil or Wild Alsaskan Salmon Oil or Organic Cold Pressed Flax Seed (Linseed) oil;
    • Omega-6 from organic coconut oil, organic sunflower oil, virgin olive oil;
    • This way you know that you are getting a quality product that is as free of toxins as possible.
  • Avoid Products that Contain Fillers and Other Unnecessary Unhealthy Ingredients
    • Look for products that do not contain fillers, soy or wheat-based derivitives, food colouring, artificial flavoring, sweeteners, etc.
    • If you are going to use a soft-gel look for products that do not contain chemical-based slipping agents.
4.4 If You Choose an All-in-One Product Check Ratio

Read the label - if the product is not conforming to the ratio as described  in section 1.0 of this article then don't buy the product.

4.5 Decide on Human Grade or 'Made for Pets'
You can use a quality human-grade supplement or a product specifically made for dogs and cats.
  • The dog and cat supplements are not specifically formulated to be better for your dog or cat than a good human grade product;
  • The balance required for human, canine and feline intake of Omega 3 to 6 fatty acids are the same for all three species;
  • Products made specifically for the dog and cat food industry tend to be over-priced simply because the product is targeted to retail to a 'specialty' market.
4.6 Introduce Oils Gradually to the Diet

Some dogs and cats are allergic to or have a sensitivity to fish oil. Fish oil may cause diarrhea in some dogs and cats.

If your dog or cat has never had a fish supplement (liquid oil or gel) before introduce fish oil to the diet starting with 1/4  of the recommended daily dosage and over he space of a several weeks incrementaly increase the dosage until you reach the standard daily dose.

4.7 Allergies - Food and Environmental

If your dog or cat is allergic to shellfish do not give him/her krill oil.

If your dog or cat is allergic to fish then choose flax seed oil as the source of Omega-3 fatty acids. 

If your dog or cat has an environmental allergy to the Linum family of plants do not use flax or flax seed (also known as linseed) oil.

If your dog or cat has an environmental allergy to the Cannabaceae family of plants do not use hemp seed or hemp seed oil. 

The same is true for any other food or environmental allergy - check ingredients against allergens and substitute to suit.

5.0 Good Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids
        ALA -  Alpha-linolenic acid 
        EPA - Eicosapentaenoic acid
        DHA - Docosahexaenoic acid
  • Atlantic Mackerel 
  • Anchovy
  • Bluefin Tuna 
  • Beans/legumes
  • Chia Seeds (whole or ground), Chia Seed Oil
  • Cod Liver Oil
    • If you are going to use be careful pay special attention to the product that you purchase...
      • Many brands of cod liver oil are very high in vitamin A and relatively low in vitamin D;
      • This lack of balance between A and D has the potential to cause vitamin A toxicity;
      • For this reason it is important to choose a cod liver oil that has a considerably lower ratio of vitamin A to vitamin D.
  • Dairy Products from pasture fed cows, goats and sheep
  • Eggs from organic free-range chickens
  • Flax Seeds (ground), or Cold-Pressed Organic Flax Oil (also called Linseed)
    • Unrefrigerated, non-organic flax oil does not have the same healthful properties of cold-pressed organic refrigerated flax oil; 
  • Green Leafy Vegetables
  • Norwegian or Arctic Krill oil
  • Pacific or Atlantic Herring
  • Wild Alaskan Salmon, or Wild Alaskan salmon oil
  • Sardines
  • Sprat
  • Menhaden fish
  • Meat from organic pasture fed animals
Norwegian or Arctic Krill oil is said to be the best, cleanest, most complete and bioavailable supplemental source of Omega-3 fatty acids. If you are going to use Salmon oil - be sure to buy only wild salmon oil or Atlantic salmon oil. Farmed salmon and other farmed fish is high in toxins, antibiotics etc. as noted in section 4.0 above. 

6.0 Guideline for Typical Daily Dosage -

    If you are using a pre-prepared blended product (i.e. includes Omega 3-6-9 fatty acids) follow the manufacturers' dosing instructions. If you are using a single whole food product - i.e. Krill oil you can follow the dosage provided below or the manufactures instructions.

    6.1 Norwegian or Arctic - Krill Oil, Cod Liver Oil or Wild Alaskan Salmon Oil

    Daily Dosage for Dogs and Cats

    • X-Small Dogs and Cats 
      • 1 -14 lbs – 250mg
    • Small Dogs and Cats
      • 15-29 lbs – 500mg
    • Medium Dogs 
      • 30-49 lbs – 1000mg
    • Large Dogs
      •  50 -79 lbs – 1500mg
    • X-Large Dogs
      •  80 lbs and up – 2000mg 

    Chia, Flax Seed Oil 
    • 1 tsp per every 11 lbs of body weight;
    • 1 ml per every 1 kg of body weight.

    7.0 Good Sources of Omega-6 Fatty Acids
            LA - Linoleic acid;
            GL - Gamma-linoenic acid, and;
            AA - Arachidonic acid
    • Animal Meats
    • Coconut Oil (see below)
      • While virgin coconut oil is 90% saturated fat, when added to a dog’s diet in small quantities, on a daily basis virgin coconut oil has many beneficial qualities. It is also very affective as a topically applied treatment on cuts, wounds and for ailments of the skin. To learn about the extensive benefits of adding coconut oil to your dog’s daily diet click here.
    • Chia Seeds (ground or whole) or Chia Seed Oil
    • Hemp Oil
    • Olive Oil 
    • Pumpkin Seeds
    • Sesame Oil 
    • Sunflower Seed Oil

    8.0 Guideline for Typical Daily Dosage Omega-6

    8.1 Hemp, Sesame, Sunflower, Pumpkin, Olive Oil
    • 1 tsp per every 11 lbs of body weight;
    • 1 ml per every 1 kg of body weight.
    8.2 Coconut Oil
    • 1/4 tsp per every 10 lbs of body weight twice daily;
    • 1/2 tsp per every 10 lbs of body weight once daily.
      • Coconut oil is a favorite of mine as it has a multitude of health benefits that you can read about here

    9.0 Oils That Are Not Recommended  

    Do not give your dog or cat non-organic:
    Canola Oil, Cottonseed Oil, Safflower Oil, Soy Oil

    Canola oil, soy products, soy oil, safflower oil, cotton seed oil are grown from Round-up Ready Genetically Modified (GM) seed crops (i.e. in North America). These oils are all very high in pesticide residue...
    Canola and soybeans in the USA and Canada are almost all grown from Genetically Modified (GM) seeds - the long term affect of ingesting GM food is not known. Further to this, large factory farms use a method to process soy that leaves it very high in photoestrogens. Photoestrogens have been proven to interfere with reproduction and thyroid function. Factory farming processing methods for soy also result in a product that is very high in phytates. Phytates prevent mineral absorption as well as substances that prevent the normal function of enzymes required to digest protein. And one last thumbs down for large factory farm produced soy - it has one of the highest concentrations of pesticides found in North American crops. Traditional methods of processing soy by fermentation (as employed in Japan and China) greatly reduces photoestrogens, and phytates, thus making consumption of the resulting soy, safe and nutritional.

    10.0 Cautions
    • Stop giving your dog or cat Omega-3 Fatty Acid supplements 10 days prior to scheduled surgery;
    • Wait 10 days after surgery and/or after stitches/sutures are removed before resuming supplementation;
    • Allergic reactions to shellfish for dogs and cats is rare but possible;
      •  If you think your dog or cat is allergic to shellfish do not give him/her krill oil.
    11.0 Drug Interactions

    If your dog or cat is on the following drugs consult your veterinarian before supplementing with Omega-3 Fatty Acids:
    • Blood thinners;
    • Beta blockers;
    • Diuretics.

    12.0 Holistic Support

    Additional Assistance - Holistic Health and Wellness Service
    If you require additional support, and guidance - contact me to discuss your requirements. I will determine the appropriate course of action for your situation and I will let you know the applicable fees. I offer consultative services to clients around the world...
    Diet, Nutrition Wellness Services
    • Unbiased Diet, Nutrition, Product Advice - information and payment here >>. 
    • Holistic Diet, Nutrition Wellness Plans - information and payment here >>.
    Dog Obedience Training and Behavior Modification Services
    • In-Person sessions - information and payment here >>.
    • On-Line consultation and sessions - information and payment here >>.